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Work Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationship Quality: The Mediating Role of Temporal Involvement


Departments of Sociology and Social Organization and Psychology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands (,, and


This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on 1,008 Dutch fathers and 929 Dutch mothers with school-aged children. Longer working hours and less work engagement were associated with less parent-child time and longer working hours, more restrictive organizational norms, stress, flexibility, nonstandard hours (mothers only), and work engagement increased the disturbance of parent-child activities. Less and more disturbed parent-child activities were, in turn, associated with a lower parent-child relationship quality. In addition, work engagement and working hours had direct, beneficial effects on parent-child relationship quality.