• mouse trisomy 16;
  • animal model;
  • human trisomy 21;
  • persistent common atrioventricular canal

ABSTRACT  Mouse trisomy 16, which was induced by mating males of Rb(16.17)7 Bnr/Rb(9.16)9Rma with three different strains of female, C57BL/6, C57BL/10 and C3H/He, was examined in fetuses and newborns in terms of incidence of occurrence, malformations and sex ratio. The incidence of trisomies tended to be higher in C3H/He than in C57BL/6 and C57BL/10. Trisomies could not survive beyond term in C57BL/6, which was most thoroughly examined in the three strains. Trisomy-associated generalized edema, beginning to appear on day 14 of pregnancy on fetus's back, reached the maximum on day 16 in all strains. On cardiovascular anomalies, persistent common atrioventricular canal was observed in virtually all trisomies from C57BL/10 and C57BL/6, while in about 80% from C3H/He. In conotruncal region, all trisomies from former two crossing exhibited double outlet right ventricle or persistent truncus arteriosus. In addition to these anomalies, riding aorta was found in C3H/He. Hydroureter and hydronephrosis developed from day 17 of pregnancy in trisomies other than those in C57BL/10. The histological study of gonads revealed that trisomy 16 tended to be predominant in males of each crossing. The anomalies encountered in mouse trisomy 16, such as edema, persistent common atrioventricular canal, and hydroureter and hydronephrosis appeared to be in common with human trisomy 21 embryos and fetuses. The tendency of predominance of mouse trisomies in males may provide further homology to human trisomy 21. It is supposed that genetic background by different female strains may affect phenotypic expression of malformations. The extremely high incidence of cardiovascular anomalies is regarded as suitable material for elucidation of pathogenesis.