Incidence and Familial Occurrence of the Congenital Anomalies of the Face, Hand and Foot

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Abstract

We made an epidemiological study of congenital anomalies of the face, hand and foot in newborns from 1973 to 1992 in Miyagi Prefecture which has a population of about two million. In these twenty years 579,766 babies were born in Miyagi Prefecture. Out of these newborns 3,416 babies with 3,759 congenital anomalies of the face, hand and foot were registered. Of all registered congenital anomalies, face anomalies were most commonly encountered, followed by hand and foot anomalies. Among face anomalies, in order of frequency, accessory ear was the most common, next cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone, cryptotia and microtia. The occurrence ratio per 10,000 live births was 9.6 in accessory ear, 6.7 in cleft lip, 6.1 in cleft lip with cleft palate, 4.2 in cleft palate alone, 2.9 in cryptotia, and 1.8 in microtia. In hand and foot anomalies, polydactyly was the most common and syndactyly the next. Incidence ratio of polydactyly was 5.8 in the hand and 6.4 in the foot. Polydactyly was the most frequent in the preaxial ray in the hand and in the postaxial ray in the foot. About half of cases of postaxial polydactyly the foot was associated with syndactyly between the fourth and fifth toe. In addition, we reported on variation of the incidence ratio and familial occurrence of congenital anomalies of the face, hand and foot.

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