The Importance of Integrated Goal Setting: The Application of Cost-of-Capital Concepts to Private Firms


  • A. Frank Adams III,

  • George E. Manners Jr.,

  • Joseph H. Astrachan,

  • Pietro Mazzola


In this article, we examine financial return, answer the question of how one knows when the return is adequate, and explore the relationship of short- and long-term returns as they relate to business health.