The increasing burden of chronic diseases including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and dementia has led to greater emphasis on health promotion, prevention and early intervention (PPEI) activities within primary care. At the same time, there is growing recognition of the importance of measuring and benchmarking health-care system performance. This includes the measurement of PPEI activities. This paper considers the issue of measuring PPEI activities that are relevant to reducing the risk of dementia within the Australian primary care system. Although Australia does not currently have a comprehensive data collection regarding primary health-care services, there are a number of national, state and other data sources. These sources could be utilised, either in their current format or modified to provide data regarding PPEI activities in primary care that may reduce the risk of dementia and we have made recommendations regarding the development of such indicators.