• evidence;
  • context;
  • facilitation;
  • culture;
  • pain management;
  • knowledge


Background: The development of acute pain services (APS), education programmes, and protocols assumed an expectation that health care professionals would integrate evidence into everyday practice. However, research evidence into pain management would suggest that this is not the case.

 Approach: Through a review of the literature, the authors aim to (1) explore the factors that have a significant influence on getting evidence into practice (using the PARIHS model as a guide) and (2) examine the relevance of these factors to postoperative pain practices.

 Findings: The need to assist clinicians with developing a greater awareness of the competing and complex influences that surround pain management practices is outlined.

 Recommendations: There is a necessity to adopt a systematic, rigorous, and multidimensional approach to pain management issues, utilising the PARIHS framework as a guide, to improve pain practices.

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2005; 2(3):131-141