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Keywords:

  • Eosinophilic cystitis;
  • eosinophilia

Summary

Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare clinicopathological condition characterized by transmural inflammation of the bladder predominantly with eosinophils, associated with fibrosis with or without muscle necrosis. The cause of EC remains unclear, although it has been associated with various aetiological factors, such as allergy, bladder tumour, bladder trauma, parasitic infections and chemotherapeutic agents. EC is, probably, caused by the antigen–antibody reaction. This leads to the production of various immunoglobulins, which, in turn, cause the activation of eosinophils and initiates the inflammatory process. The most common symptom complex consists of frequency, haematuria, dysuria and suprapubic pain. Cystoscopy and biopsy are the gold standard for diagnosis. Additional laboratory evidence supporting the diagnosis includes proteinuria, microscopic haematuria and peripheral eosinophilia, the last one occurring in few patients. There is no curative treatment for this condition. Current treatment modalities include transurethral resection of the bladder lesion along with non-specific medical therapy, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids. Because the lesion tends to recur in spite of the above therapy, long-term follow-up is mandatory.