The efficacy and safety of tadalafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) were assessed in a 6-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Australian men with mild, moderate or severe ED of organic, psychogenic or mixed aetiology were randomised to tadalafil 20 mg as needed (n = 93) or placebo (n = 47). Efficacy assessments included the international index of erectile function (IIEF) and the sexual encounter profile (SEP) diary. Tadalafil significantly improved erectile function compared with placebo (p < 0.001, all measures). At the end of the study, the mean per-patient proportion of successful sexual intercourse attempts (SEP question three) was 73.5% for patients treated with tadalafil and 26.8% for placebo-treated patients. Improved erections were reported by 78% of tadalafil-treated patients compared to 12.8% of placebo-treated patients. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events – headache and dyspepsia – were generally mild or moderate. Tadalafil was effective and well tolerated in Australian men with mild to severe ED.