Expression patterns of cyclins D1, E and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21waf1/cip1, p27kip1 in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with other cell cycle regulators (pRb, p53 and Ki-67 and PCNA) and clinicopathological features


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Dr Elli Ioachim, Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Aberrations in the cell cycle regulators are common features of many tumours and several have been shown to have prognostic significant in colorectal cancer. The expression patterns of cyclins D1 and E as well as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1 and their interrelationship with other cell cycle checkpoint proteins [p53, pRb, Ki-67 and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] were investigated in colorectal cancer in order to ascertain coregulation and influence on tumour behaviour or survival. These molecular markers were localisated immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibodies anticyclin D1 (DCS-6), anticyclin E (13A3), anti-p21 (4D10), anti-p27 (1B4), anti-p53 (DO7), anti-Rb (AB-5), MIB1 and PC10 in colorectal cancer tissue from 97 patients. Data were analysed statistically using the spss software program. Overexpression of cyclin D1, cyclin E and p21waf1/cip1 proteins (>5% positive neoplastic cells) was observed in 5.9%, 30% and 7.2% of the cases respectively. Increased levels of cyclin D1 (p = 0.0001) and p21waf1/cip1 protein (p = 0.03) in tumours with mucous differentiation were observed. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was correlated with tumour stage (p = 0.03), the lymph node involvement (p = 0.02), as well as p21waf1/cip1 protein expression (p < 0.0001). Cyclin E was positively correlated with p21waf1/cip1 (p = 0.014), as well as with the cell proliferation as measured by PCNA-labelling index (p = 0.011) and Ki-67 score (p = 0.007). A positive relationship of p21waf1/cip1 expression with the proliferative-associated index Ki-67 was noted (p = 0.005). Downregulation of p27kip1 was observed in 47.4% of the cases and was correlated with downregulation of pRb (p = 0.002) and PCNA score (p = 0.004). The prognostic significance of cyclins D1, E and CDK inhibitors p21waf1/cip1, p27kip1 in determining the risk of recurrence and overall survival with both univariate (long-rang test) and multivariate (Cox regression) methods of analysis showed no statistically significance differences. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, the levels of the cell cycle regulators studied, do not seems to have a prognostic value, in terms of predicting the risk of early recurrence and overall survival. In addition, the interrelationships, probably means their contribution to the regulation of cell growth, through different pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis.