• Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia;
  • external urethral sphincter;
  • pontine micturition centre;
  • electromyography;
  • pseudodyssynergia;
  • botulinum toxin;
  • sphincterotomy


Neurological control of micturition is undertaken by central and peripheral nerve systems through complex neuronal interconnections that are mediated by the action of several neurotransmitters, finally controlling the function of detrusor muscle and external urethral sphincter. In normal circumstances, both muscles must have co-ordinated contractions in such a way that when the detrusor contracts, the external urethral sphincter relaxes. The loss of this co-ordinated action leads to the so-called syndrome of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Without adequate treatment, more than 50% of men with this condition will develop severe complications. There are several neurological diseases that might lead to this condition where a common physiopathology consists of a distortion of the complex neural mechanism innervating the lower urinary tract. Because of this complexity, it is difficult to find a curative treatment providing a definitive solution for a majority of patients. Although most of the currently available therapies only provide partial or temporary solutions, some modalities offer a promising perspective.