SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Remick RA. Diagnosis and management of depression in primary care: a clinical update and review. Can Med Assoc J 2002; 167: 125360.
  • 2
    Nemeroff CB. The burden of severe depression: a review of diagnostic challenges and treatment alternatives. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41: 189206.
  • 3
    Castren E. Is mood chemistry? Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6: 2416.
  • 4
    Duman RS, Monteggia LM. A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59: 111627.
  • 5
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 2003; 289: 3095105.
  • 6
    McGlinchey JB, Zimmerman M, Young D, Chelminski I. Diagnosing major depressive disorder VII: are some symptoms better than others? J Nerv Ment Dis 2006; 194: 78590.
  • 7
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text-Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 2000.
  • 8
    Mueller TI, Leon AC, Keller MB et al. Recurrence after recovery from major depressive disorder during 15 years of observational follow-up. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 10006.
  • 9
    Solomon DA, Keller MB, Leon AC et al. Multiple recurrences of major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 22933.
  • 10
    Hollon SD, Shelton RC, Wisniewski S et al. Presenting characteristics of depressed outpatients as a function of recurrence: preliminary findings from the STAR*D clinical trial. J Psychiatr Res 2006; 40: 5969.
  • 11
    Post RM, Rubinow DR, Ballenger JC. Conditioning and sensitisation in the longitudinal course of affective illness. Br J Psychiatry 1986; 149: 191201.
  • 12
    Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO. Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: an evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 124351.
  • 13
    Monroe SM, Harkness KL. Life stress, the ‘‘kindling’’ hypothesis, and the recurrence of depression: considerations from a life stress perspective. Psychol Rev 2005; 112: 41745.
  • 14
    Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO. Genetic risk, number of previous depressive episodes, and stressful life events in predicting the onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 5826.
  • 15
    Ladd CO, Huot RL, Thrivkraman KV, Nemeroff CB, Meany MJ, Plotsky PM. Long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine adaptations to adverse early experience. Prog Brain Res 2000; 122: 81103.
  • 16
    Kaufman J, Yang BZ, Douglas-Palumberi H et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-5-HTTLPR gene interactions and environmental modifiers of depression in children. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59: 67380.
  • 17
    Heim C, Plotsky PM, Nemeroff CB. Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 6418.
  • 18
    McCullough JP Jr, Klein DN, Borian FE et al. Group comparisons of DSM-IV subtypes of chronic depression: validity of the distinctions, part 2. J Abnorm Psychol 2003; 112: 61422.
  • 19
    Keller MB, Lavori PW, Mueller TI et al. Time to recovery, chronicity, and levels of psychopathology in major depression. A 5-year prospective follow-up of 431 subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49: 80916.
  • 20
    Spijker J, De Graaf R, Bijl RV et al. Determinants of persistence of major depressive episodes in the general population. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). J Affect Disord 2004; 81: 23140.
  • 21
    Buist-Bouwman MA, Ormel J, De Graaf R, Vollebergh WAM. Functioning after a major depressive episode: complete or incomplete recovery? J Affect Disord 2004; 82: 36371.
  • 22
    Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Maser JD et al. Major depressive disorder: a prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse. J Affect Disord 1998; 50: 97108.
  • 23
    Keller MB. Past, present, and future directions for defining optimal treatment outcome in depression: remission and beyond. JAMA 2003; 289: 315260.
  • 24
    Drevets WC. Functional neuroimaging studies of depression: the anatomy of melancholia. Annu Rev Med 1998; 49: 34161.
  • 25
    Davidson RJ. Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: toward a synthesis. Psychophysiology 2003; 40: 65565.
  • 26
    Swanson LW. The hypothalamus. In: BjörklundA, HökfeltT, SwansonLW, eds. Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Vol. 5, Integrated Systems of the CNS, Part I, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Retina. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1987: 1124.
  • 27
    Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 2000; 4: 21522.
  • 28
    McCormick LM, Ziebell S, Nopoulos P et al. Anterior cingulated cortex: an MRI-based parcellation method. Neuroimage 2006; 32: 116775.
  • 29
    Anand A, Li Y, Wang Y et al. Activity and connectivity of brain mood regulating circuit in depression: a functional magnetic resonance study. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 107988.
  • 30
    Whittle S, Allen NB, Lubman DI, Yücel M. The neurobiological basis of temperament: towards a better understanding of psychopathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005; 30: 51125.
  • 31
    MacDonald AW III, Cohen JD, Stenger VA, Carter CS. Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science 2000; 288: 18358.
  • 32
    Videbech P, Ravnkilde B. Hippocampal volume and depression: a meta-analysis of MRI studies. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 195766.
  • 33
    Sheline YI, Gado MH, Kraemer HC. Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 15168.
  • 34
    Colla M, Kronenberg G, Deuschle M et al. Hippocampal volume reduction and HPA-system activity in major depression. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41: 55360.
  • 35
    Neumeister A, Wood S, Bonne O et al. Reduced hippocampal volume in unmedicated, remitted patients with major depression versus control subjects. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 9357.
  • 36
    Lyons DM, Yang C, Sawyer-Glover AM, Moseley ME, Schatzberg AF. Early life stress and inherited variation in monkey hippocampal volumes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58: 114551.
  • 37
    Sullilvan EV, Pfefferbaum A, Swan GE, Carmelli D. Heritability of hippocampal size in elderly twin men: equivalent influence from genes and environment. Hippocampus 2001; 11: 75462.
  • 38
    Frodl T, Meisenzahl EM, Zill P et al. Reduced hippocampal volumes associated with the long variant of the serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 17783.
  • 39
    Frodl T, Schüle C, Schmitt G et al. Association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 4106.
  • 40
    Frodl T, Meisenzahl EM, Zetzsche T et al. Hippocampal and amygdala changes in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls during a 1-year follow-up. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65: 4929.
  • 41
    Manji HK, Quiroz JA, Sporn J et al. Enhancing neuronal plasticity and cellular resilience to develop novel, improved therapeutics for difficult-to-treat depression. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 53: 70742.
  • 42
    De Kloet ER, Derijk RH, Meijer OC. Therapy insight: is there an imbalanced response of mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in depression? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2007; 3: 16879.
  • 43
    Nestler EJ, Barrot M, DiLeone RJ et al. Neurobiology of depression. Neuron 2002; 34: 1325.
  • 44
    Stockmeier CA, Mahajan GJ, Konick LC et al. Cellular changes in the postmortem hippocampus in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 56: 64050.
  • 45
    Raison CL, Miller AH. When not enough is too much: the role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 155465.
  • 46
    Raison CL, Capuron L, Miller AH. Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression. Trends Immunol 2006; 27: 2431.
  • 47
    Weisler-Frank J, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Immune-to-brain communication dynamically modulates pain: physiological and pathological consequences. Brain Behav Immun 2005; 19: 10411.
  • 48
    Tsigos C, Chrousos GP. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors, and stress. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53: 86571.
  • 49
    Rajkowska G, Miguel-Hidalgo JJ. Gliogenesis and glial pathology in depression. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2007; 6: 21933.
  • 50
    Bessis A, Bechade C, Bernard D, Roumier A. Microglial control of neuronal death and synaptic properties. Glia 2007; 55: 2338.
  • 51
    Frank MG, Baratta MV, Sprunger DB, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Microglia serve as a neuroimmune substrate for stress-induced potentiation of CNS pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21: 4759.
  • 52
    Duman RS, Heninger GR, Nestler EJ. A molecular and cellular theory of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54: 597606.
  • 53
    Tapia-Arancibia L, Rage F, Givalois L, Arancibia S. Physiology of BDNF: focus on hypothalamic function. Front Neuroendocrinol 2004; 25: 77107.
  • 54
    Lu B, Pang PT, Woo NH. The yin and yang of neurotrophin action. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6: 60314.
  • 55
    Duric V, McCarson KE. Hippocampal neurokinin-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression is decreased in rat models of pain and stress. Neuroscience 2005; 133: 9991006.
  • 56
    Shimizu E, Hashimoto K, Okamura N et al. Alterations of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depressed patients with or without antidepressants. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54: 705.
  • 57
    Karege F, Vaudan G, Schwald M et al. Neurotrophin levels in postmortem brains of suicide victims and the effects of antemortem diagnosis and psychotropic drugs. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005; 136: 2937.
  • 58
    Meyer JH, Ginovart N, Boovariwala A et al. Elevated monoamine oxidase A levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 120916.
  • 59
    Mega MS, Cummings JL, Salloway S, Malloy P. The limbic system: an anatomic, phylogenetic, and clinical perspective. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 9: 31530.
  • 60
    Fields HL, Heinricher MM, Mason P. Neurotransmitters in nociceptive modulatory circuits. Annu Rev Neurosci 1991; 14: 21945.
  • 61
    Pace TWW, Hu F, Miller AH. Cytokine-effects on glucocorticoid receptor function: relevance to glucocorticoid resistance and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21: 919.
  • 62
    Juric DM, Miklic S, Carman-Krzan M. Monominergic neuronal activity up-regulates BDNF synthesis in cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Brain Res 2006; 1108: 5462.
  • 63
    Karege F, Schwald M, Cisse M. Postnatal development profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat brain and platelets. Neurosci Lett 2002; 328: 2614.
  • 64
    Lommatzsch M, Zingler D, Schuhbaeck K et al. The impact of age, weight, and gender on BDNF levels in human platelets and plasma. Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26: 11523.
  • 65
    Aydemir O, Deveci A, Taneli F. The effect of chronic antidepressant treatment on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in depressed patients: a preliminary study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005; 29: 2615.
  • 66
    Gonul AS, Akdeniz F, Taneli F et al. Effect of treatment on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in depressed patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 255: 3816.
  • 67
    Chen B, Dowlatshahi D, MacQueen GM et al. Increased hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity in subjects treated with antidepressant medication. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50: 2605.
  • 68
    Mayberg HS, Brannan SK, Tekell JL et al. Regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine in major depression: serial changes and relationship to clinical response. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48: 83043.
  • 69
    Sheline YI, Barch DM, Donnelly JM et al. Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: an fMRI study. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50: 6518.
  • 70
    Chen CH, Ridler K, Suckling J et al. Brain imaging correlates of depressive symptom severity and predictors of symptom improvement after antidepressant treatment. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 62: 40714.
  • 71
    O'Brien SM, Scully P, Fitzgerald P et al. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41: 32631.
  • 72
    Brody AL, Saxena S, Mandelken MA et al. Brain metabolic changes associated with symptom factor improvement in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50: 1718.
  • 73
    Duman RS. Neurotrophic factors and regulation of mood: role of exercise, diet, and metabolism. Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26 (Suppl. 1): S8893.
  • 74
    Szádóczky E, Rozsa S, Zambori J, Furedi J. Predictors for 2 year outcome of major depressive episode. J Affect Disord 2004; 83: 4957.
  • 75
    Tew JD, Mulsant BH, Houck PR et al. Impact of prior treatment exposure on response to antidepressant treatment in late life. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 14: 95765.
  • 76
    Oswald P, Souery D, Kasper S et al. Predictive factors of resistance to antidepressant treatment: results from a European multicentre study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 15 (Suppl. 3): S3267.
  • 77
    Brook OH, Van Hout HPJ, Stalman WAB, De Haan M. Nontricylic antidepressants: predictors of nonadherence. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26: 6437.
  • 78
    Nelson JC, Mazure CM, Jatlow PI et al. Combining norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition mechanism for treatment of depression: a double-blind, randomized study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55: 296300.
  • 79
    Papakostas GI, Thase ME, Fava M, Nelson JC, Shelton RC. Are antidepressant drugs that combine serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms of action more effective than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating major depressive disorder? A meta-analysis of studies of newer agents. Biol Psychiatry 2007; doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych2007.03.027.
  • 80
    Anderson I. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. J Affect Dis 2000; 58: 1936.
  • 81
    Trivedi MH, Fava M, Marangell LB et al. Use of treatment algorithms for depression. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 8: 2917.
  • 82
    Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Katon W, Kroenke K. Depression and pain comorbidity: a literature review. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 243345.
  • 83
    Karp JF, Scott J, Houck P et al. Pain predicts longer time to remission during treatment of recurrent depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 5917.
  • 84
    Greco T, Eckert G, Kroenke K. The outcomes of physical symptoms with treatment of depression. J Gen Intern Med 2004; 19: 8138.
  • 85
    Jones CK, Eastwood BJ, Need AB, Shannon HE. Analgesic effects of serotonergic, noradrenergic or dual reuptake inhibitors in the carrageenan test in rats: evidence for synergism between serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors. Neuropharmacology 2006; 51: 117280.
  • 86
    Fava M, Mallinckrodt CH, Detke MJ et al. The effect of duloxetine on painful physical symptoms in depressed patients: do improvements in these symptoms result in higher remission rates? J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65: 52130.
  • 87
    Pintor L, Gastó C, Navarro V et al. Relapse of major depression after complete and partial remission during a 2-year follow-up. J Affect Disord 2003; 73: 23744.
  • 88
    Menza M, Marin H, Opper RS. Residual symptoms in depression: can treatment be symptom-specific? J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 51623.
  • 89
    Paykel ES, Scott J, Cornwall PL et al. Duration of relapse prevention after cognitive therapy in residual depression: follow-up of controlled trial. Psychol Med 2005; 35: 5968.