Disclosures SHIELD, the SHIELD Study Group and the preparation of this manuscript were supported by funding from AstraZeneca LP. Dr Grandy is an employee of AstraZeneca LP and Drs Chapman and Fox are independent consultants who received research funds to conduct this analysis.
Quality of life and depression of people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those at low and high risk for type 2 diabetes: findings from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD)
Article first published online: 8 FEB 2008
© 2008 The Authors
International Journal of Clinical Practice
Volume 62, Issue 4, pages 562–568, April 2008
How to Cite
Grandy, S., Chapman, R. H., Fox, K. M. and for the SHIELD Study Group (2008), Quality of life and depression of people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those at low and high risk for type 2 diabetes: findings from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62: 562–568. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01703.x
Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.
- Issue published online: 6 MAR 2008
- Article first published online: 8 FEB 2008
- Paper received November 2007, accepted January 2008
Objectives: This study compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and those at low or high risk for T2D.
Methods: Respondents in a population-based US 2004 survey reported whether they had T2D (n = 3530) or risk factors for T2D [abdominal obesity, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and history of cardiovascular disease]. Respondents without T2D were stratified into low risk (0–2 risk factors, n = 5335) and high risk (3–5 risk factors, n = 5051). SF-12 version 2 (SF-12) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 were used to measure HRQoL and depression. Mean scores were compared across the three groups using analysis of variance. Linear regression identified factors associated with SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS), adjusting for age, gender, race, income, geographic region, household size, BMI and group.
Results: Respondents were mostly women (60%) with mean age of 54 years. Mean PCS scores for T2D and high risk (39.5 and 41.7, respectively) were significantly lower than for low risk (50.6, p < 0.001). After adjustment, high-risk and T2D groups were associated with lower PCS and MCS scores compared with low risk group (p < 0.05). Mean PHQ-9 scores and per cent with moderate-to-severe depression were significantly higher for T2D and high risk than for low risk (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Health-related quality of life and depression scores in T2D were similar to those at high risk, and indicated significant decrements in physical health and greater depression compared with low-risk respondents.