• 1
    Abrams P, Artibani W, Cardozo L et al. Reviewing the ICS 2002 Terminology Report: the ongoing debate. Neurourol Urodyn 2006; 25: 293.
  • 2
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M et al. The standardisation of terminology in lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Urology 2003; 61: 3749.
  • 3
    Stewart WF, Van Rooyen JB, Cundiff GW et al. Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States. World J Urol 2003; 20: 32736.
  • 4
    Irwin DE, Milsom I, Hunskaar S et al. Population-based survey of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms in five countries: results of the EPIC study. Eur Urol 2006; 50: 130615.
  • 5
    Ong KL, Cheung BM, Wong LY et al. Prevalence, treatment, and control of diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Ann Epidemiol 2008; 18: 2229.
  • 6
    Arif AA, Delclos GL, Lee ES et al. Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 82733.
  • 7
    Hanifin JM, Reed ML. A population-based survey of eczema prevalence in the United States. Dermatitis 2007; 18: 8291.
  • 8
    Finkelstein K, Glosner S, Sanchez RJ, Uddin N. Prevalence of probable overactive bladder in a private obstetrics and gynecology group practice. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24: 108390.
  • 9
    Dooley Y, Kenton K, Cao G et al. Urinary incontinence prevalence: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Urol 2008; 179: 65661.
  • 10
    Fenner DE, Trowbridge ER, Patel DA et al. Establishing the prevalence of incontinence study: racial differences in women’s patterns of urinary incontinence. J Urol 2008; 179: 145560.
  • 11
    Sears CL, Wright J, O’Brien J et al. The racial distribution of female pelvic floor disorders in an equal access health care system. J Urol 2009; 181: 18792.
  • 12
    Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. World Population Prospects: the 2006 Revision. (accessed August 2008).
  • 13
    Liberman JN, Hunt TL, Stewart WF et al. Health-related quality of life among adults with symptoms of overactive bladder: results from a U.S. community-based survey. Urology 2001; 57: 104450.
  • 14
    Abrams P, Kelleher C, Lerr L, Rogers R. Overactive bladder significantly affects quality of life. Am J Manag Care 2000; 6: S58090.
  • 15
    Coyne KS, Payne C, Bhattacharyya SK et al. The impact of urinary urgency and frequency on health-related quality of life in overactive bladder: results from a national community survey. Value Health 2004; 7: 45563.
  • 16
    Irwin DE, Milsom I, Kopp Z et al. Impact of overactive bladder symptoms on employment, social interactions and emotional well-being in six European countries. BJU Int 2006; 97: 96100.
  • 17
    Dmochowski RR, Newman DK. Impact of overactive bladder on women in the United States: results of a national survey. Curr Med Res Opin 2007; 23: 6576.
  • 18
    Coyne KS, Margolis MK, Jumadilova Z et al. Overactive bladder and women’s sexual health: what is the impact? J Sex Med 2007; 4: 65666.
  • 19
    Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Irwin DE et al. The impact of overactive bladder, incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU Int 2008; 101: 138895.
  • 20
    Brown JS, McGhan WF, Chokroverty S. Comorbidities associated with overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care 2000; 6 (11 Suppl.): 5749.
  • 21
    Darkow T, Fontes CL, Williamson TE. Costs associated with the management of overactive bladder and related comorbidities. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25: 5119.
  • 22
    Teloken C, Caraver F, Weber FA et al. Overactive bladder: prevalence and implications in Brazil. Eur Urol 2006; 49: 108792.
  • 23
    Wagner TH, Hu TW, Bentkover J et al. Health-related consequences of overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care 2002; 8: S598607.
  • 24
    Nuotio M, Tammela TL, Luukkaala T, Jylha M. Urgency and urge incontinence in an older population: ten-year changes and their association with mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res 2002; 14: 4129.
  • 25
    Nuotio M, Tammela TL, Luukkaala T, Jylha M. Predictors of institutionalization in an older population during a 13-year period: the effect of urge incontinence. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003; 58: 75662.
  • 26
    Nygaard I, Girts T, Fultz NH et al. Is urinary incontinence a barrier to exercise in women? Obstet Gynecol 2005; 106: 30714.
  • 27
    Milne JL. Behavioral therapies for overactive bladder: making sense of the evidence. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2008; 35: 93101.
  • 28
    Burgio KL. Current perspectives on management of urgency using bladder and behavioral training. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2004; 16: 47.
  • 29
    Burgio KL. Behavioral treatment options for urinary incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: S829.
  • 30
    Wyman JF, Fantl JA, McClish DK, Bump RC. Comparative efficacy of behavioral interventions in the management of female urinary incontinence. Continence Program for Women Research Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 9991007.
  • 31
    Wyman JF. Behavioral interventions for the patient with overactive bladder. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2005; 32: S115.
  • 32
    Newman DK. Conservative therapy for incontinence. In: GoldmanHB, VasavadaSP, eds. Female Urology: a Practical Clinical Guide. Totowa, New York: Humana Press, 2007: 6379.
  • 33
    Newman DK, Wein AJ. Managing and Treating Urinary Incontinence, 2nd edn. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press, 2008.
  • 34
    Newman DK. Behavioral treatments. In: VasavadaSP, AppellRA, SandPK, RazS, eds. Female Urology, Urogynecology, and Voiding Dysfunction. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2005: 23366.
  • 35
    AbramsP, CardozoL, KhouryS, WeinAJ, eds. Promotion, Education and Organization for Continence Care. Plymouth: Health Publication, 2005.
  • 36
    Leong FC, McLennan MT. Neuromodulation for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Mo Med 2007; 104: 4359.
  • 37
    Vandoninck V, Van Balken MR, Finazzi Agro E et al. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder: urodynamic data. Neurourol Urodyn 2003; 22: 22732.
  • 38
    Wilson PD, Berghmans B, Hagen S et al. Adult conservative management. In: AbramsP, CardozoL, KhouryS, WeinAJ, eds. Incontinence, Proceedings from the Third International Consultation on Incontinence. Plymouth: Health Publication, 2005: 3572.
  • 39
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Urinary Incontinence in Women. ACOG practice bulletin no. 63. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2005.
  • 40
    Robert M, Ross S. Conservative management of urinary incontinence. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2006; 28: 11138.
  • 41
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Urinary incontinence: the management of urinary incontinence in women. Clinical Guideline 40; 2006. (accessed February 2009).
  • 42
    Landefeld CS, Bowers BJ, Feld AD et al. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148: 44958.
  • 43
    Burgio KL, Goode PS, Locher JL et al. Behavioral training with and without biofeedback in the treatment of urge incontinence in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 22939.
  • 44
    Burgio KL, Locher JL, Goode PS et al. Behavioral vs drug treatment for urge urinary incontinence in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 280: 19952000.
  • 45
    Mattiasson A, Blaakaer J, Hoye K, Wein AJ. Simplified bladder training augments the effectiveness of tolterodine in patients with an overactive bladder. BJU Int 2003; 91: 5460.
  • 46
    Diokno AC, Sand PK, Macdiarmid S et al. Perceptions and behaviours of women with bladder control problems. Fam Pract 2006; 23: 56877.
  • 47
    Diokno AC, Sampselle CM, Herzog AR et al. Prevention of urinary incontinence by behavioral modification program: a randomized, controlled trial among older women in the community. J Urol 2004; 171: 116571.
  • 48
    Klutke CG, Burgio KL, Wyman JF et al. Combined effects of behavioral intervention and tolterodine in subjects dissatisfied with their overactive bladder medication. J Urol 2009; Epub ahead of print, DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.02.028.
  • 49
    Sampselle CM. Behavioral intervention: the first-line treatment for women with urinary incontinence. Curr Urol Rep 2003; 4: 35661.
  • 50
    Godec CJ. ‘Timed voiding’– a useful tool in the treatment of urinary incontinence. Urology 1984; 23: 97100.
  • 51
    Riesenhuber A, Boehm M, Posch M, Aufricht C. Diuretic potential of energy drinks. Amino Acids 2006; 31: 813.
  • 52
    Creighton SM, Stanton SL. Caffeine: does it affect your bladder? Br J Urol 1990; 66: 6134.
  • 53
    Lee JG, Wein AJ, Levin RM. The effect of caffeine on the contractile response of the rabbit urinary bladder to field stimulation. Gen Pharmacol 1993; 24: 100711.
  • 54
    Arya LA, Myers DL, Jackson ND. Dietary caffeine intake and the risk for detrusor instability: a case–control study. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96: 859.
  • 55
    Newman DK, Wein AJ. Managing and Treating Urinary Incontinence, 2nd edn. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press, 2009: 233306.
  • 56
    Dallosso HM, McGrother CW, Matthews RJ, Donaldson MM. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int 2003; 92: 6977.
  • 57
    Dasgupta J, Elliott RA, Doshani A, Tincello DG. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 217: 21624.
  • 58
    Beetz R. Mild dehydration: a risk factor of urinary tract infection? Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57 (Suppl. 2): S528.
  • 59
    Griffiths DJ, McCracken PN, Harrison GM, Gormley EA. Relationship of fluid intake to voluntary micturition and urinary incontinence in geriatric patients. Neurourol Urodyn 1993; 12: 17.
  • 60
    Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water SCotSEoDRI, Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Water. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004: 73185.
  • 61
    Newman DK. Lifestyle interventions. In: BourcierAP, McGuireEJ, AbramsP, eds. Pelvic Floor Disorders. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2004: 26976.
  • 62
    Kinnunen O. Study of constipation in a geriatric hospital, day hospital, old people’s home and at home. Aging (Milano) 1991; 3: 16170.
  • 63
    Snooks SJ, Barnes PR, Swash M, Henry MM. Damage to the innervation of the pelvic floor musculature in chronic constipation. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 97781.
  • 64
    Lubowski DZ, Swash M, Nicholls RJ, Henry MM. Increase in pudendal nerve terminal motor latency with defaecation straining. Br J Surg 1988; 75: 10957.
  • 65
    Charach G, Greenstein A, Rabinovich P et al. Alleviating constipation in the elderly improves lower urinary tract symptoms. Gerontology 2001; 47: 726.
  • 66
    Teleman PM, Lidfeldt J, Nerbrand C et al. Overactive bladder: prevalence, risk factors and relation to stress incontinence in middle-aged women. BJOG 2004; 111: 6004.
  • 67
    Zhang W, Song Y, He X et al. Prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome in Fuzhou Chinese women. Neurourol Urodyn 2006; 25: 71721.
  • 68
    Muscatello DJ, Rissel C, Szonyi G. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in an urban community: prevalence and associated factors in older men and women. Intern Med J 2001; 31: 15160.
  • 69
    Richter HE, Creasman JM, Myers DL et al. Urodynamic characterization of obese women with urinary incontinence undergoing a weight loss program: the Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise (PRIDE) trial. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2008; 19: 16538.
  • 70
    Bump RC, Sugerman HJ, Fantl JA, McClish DK. Obesity and lower urinary tract function in women: effect of surgically induced weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167: 3927.
  • 71
    Subak LL, Whitcomb E, Shen H et al. Weight loss: a novel and effective treatment for urinary incontinence. J Urol 2005; 174: 1905.
  • 72
    Auwad W, Steggles P, Bombieri L et al. Moderate weight loss in obese women with urinary incontinence: a prospective longitudinal study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2008; 19: 12519.
  • 73
    Subak LL, Wing R, West DS et al. Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 48190.
  • 74
    Koskimaki J, Hakama M, Huhtala H, Tammela TL. Association of smoking with lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol 1998; 159: 15802.
  • 75
    Koskimaki J, Hakama M, Huhtala H, Tammela TL. Association of non-urological diseases with lower urinary tract symptoms. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2001; 35: 37781.
  • 76
    Nuotio M, Jylha M, Koivisto AM, Tammela TL. Association of smoking with urgency in older people. Eur Urol 2001; 40: 20612.
  • 77
    Bump RC, McClish DK. Cigarette smoking and urinary incontinence in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167: 12138.
  • 78
    Koley B, Koley J, Saha JK. The effects of nicotine on spontaneous contractions of cat urinary bladder in situ. Br J Pharmacol 1984; 83: 34755.
  • 79
    Wyman JF, Fantl JA. Bladder training in ambulatory care management of urinary incontinence. Urol Nurs 1991; 11: 117.
  • 80
    Shafik A, Shafik IA. Overactive bladder inhibition in response to pelvic floor muscle exercises. World J Urol 2003; 20: 3747.
  • 81
    Wyman JF. Treatment of urinary incontinence in men and older women: the evidence shows the efficacy of a variety of techniques. Am J Nurs 2003; 103 (Suppl.): 2635.
  • 82
    McClish DK, Fantl JA, Wyman JF et al. Bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence: relationship between outcome and changes in urodynamic observations. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 77: 2816.
  • 83
    Hines SH, Seng JS, Messer KL et al. Adherence to a behavioral program to prevent incontinence. West J Nurs Res 2007; 29: 3656 (discussion 7–64).
  • 84
    Burgio KL, Locher JL, Goode PS. Combined behavioral and drug therapy for urge incontinence in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 3704.
  • 85
    Burgio KL, Kraus SR, Menefee S et al. Behavioral therapy to enable women with urge incontinence to discontinue drug treatment: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149: 1619.
  • 86
    Herschorn S, Becker D, Miller E et al. Impact of a health education intervention in overactive bladder patients. Can J Urol 2004; 11: 24307.
  • 87
    Klutke CG, Wyman JF, Harding G et al. Factors that Contribute to Treatment Satisfaction in Patients with Overactive Bladder. Taipei: International Urogynecology Association, 2008.
  • 88
    Chancellor MB, Kianifard F, Beamer E et al. A comparison of the efficacy of darifenacin alone vs. darifenacin plus a Behavioural Modification Programme upon the symptoms of overactive bladder. Int J Clin Pract 2008; 62: 60613.
  • 89
    Abrams P, Andersson KE, Brubaker L et al. 3rd International Consultation on Incontinence, Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and faecal incontinence. International Continence Society. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2005.
  • 90
    Kirby M, Artibani W, Cardozo L et al. Overactive bladder: the importance of new guidance. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60: 126371.
  • 91
    Resnick NM. Urinary incontinence. Lancet 1995; 346: 949.