Disclosure The following authors do not have potential conflicts of interest: Ruben M. Pinkhasov, Jean Wong, James Kashanian, Michael Lee, David B. Samadi, and Mark M. Pinkhasov.
Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States
Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
International Journal of Clinical Practice
Volume 64, Issue 4, pages 475–487, March 2010
How to Cite
Pinkhasov, R. M., Wong, J., Kashanian, J., Lee, M., Samadi, D. B., Pinkhasov, M. M. and Shabsigh, R. (2010), Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 64: 475–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02290.x
Potential conflicts of interest for Ridwan Shabsigh– Company (date), Position: (i) Indevus Pharmaceuticals (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (ii) Pfizer (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (iii) Bayer Schering Pharma (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (iv) American Medical Systems (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (v) Auxilium (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (vi) Johnson & Johnson (09/04/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (vii) Lilly (07/23/2007), Meeting Participant or Lecturer; (viii) Lilly (07/23/2007), Consultant or Advisor; (ix) Boehringer Ingelheim (07/23/2007), Consultant or Advisor Compensation; (x) Auxilium (06/03/2008), Investigator; (xi) Plethora (07/1/2008), Investigator; (xii) Plethora (04/1/2008), Consultant or advisor.
- Issue online: 5 FEB 2010
- Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2010
- Paper received 28 July 2009, accepted 18 November 2009
Background: Significant gender disparities exist in life expectancy and major disease morbidity. There is a need to understand the major issues related to men’s health that contributes to these significant disparities. It is hypothesized that, high-risk behaviors and low utilization of all and preventive health services contribute to the higher mortality and the higher and earlier morbidity in men.
Methods: Data was collected from CDC: Health United States, 2007; Health Behavior of Adults: United States 2002–04; and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2005 Summary.
Results: In United States, men are more likely to be regular and heavy alcohol drinkers, heavier smokers who are less likely to quit, non-medical illicit drug users, and are more overweight compared to women. Men are less likely to utilize health care visits to doctor’s offices, emergency departments (ED), and physician home visits than women. They are also less likely to make preventive care, hospice care, dental care visits, and have fewer hospital discharges and shorter hospital stays than women.
Conclusions: High-risk behaviors and low utilization of health services may contribute to the lower life expectancy in men. In the context of public health, behavioral and preventive interventions are needed to reduce the gender disparity.