SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults with diagnosed diabetes–United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 10668.
  • 2
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17237.
  • 3
    Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2009; 9: 88.
  • 4
    LeRoith D, Novosyadlyy R, Gallagher EJ, Lann D, Vijayakumar A, Yakar S. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer and a worse prognosis; epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2008; 116(Suppl. 1): S46.
  • 5
    Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 193203.
  • 6
    Saenz A, Fernandez-Esteban I, Mataix A, Ausejo M, Roque M, Moher D. Metformin monotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 3: CD002966.
  • 7
    Campbell IW, Howlett HC. Worldwide experience of metformin as an effective glucose-lowering agent: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Rev 1995; 11(Suppl. 1): S5762.
  • 8
    Chiquette E, Ramirez G, Defronzo R. A meta-analysis comparing the effect of thiazolidinediones on cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 2097104.
  • 9
    Van De Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, Van De Lisdonk EH, Rutten GE, Van Weel C. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 15463.
  • 10
    Pinelli NR, Cha R, Brown MB, Jaber LA. Addition of thiazolidinedione or exenatide to oral agents in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42: 154151.
  • 11
    Amori RE, Lau J, Pittas AG. Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007; 298: 194206.
  • 12
    Richter B, Bandeira-Echtler E, Bergerhoff K, Lerch CL. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 2: CD006739.
  • 13
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Effect of intensive blood glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998; 352: 85465.
  • 14
    Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA et al. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 242743.
  • 15
    Campbell IW, Menzies DG, Chalmers J, McBain AM, Brown IR. One year comparative trial of metformin and glipizide in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabete Metab 1994; 20: 394400.
  • 16
    Schernthaner G, Matthews DR, Charbonnel B, Hanefeld M, Brunetti P. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone versus metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 606876.
  • 17
    Schweizer A, Couturier A, Foley JE, Dejager S. Comparison between vildagliptin and metformin to sustain reductions in HbA(1c) over 1 year in drug-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 95561.
  • 18
    Jain R, Osei K, Kupfer S, Perez AT, Zhang J. Long-term safety of pioglitazone versus glyburide in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26: 138895.
  • 19
    Mazzone T, Meyer PM, Feinstein SB et al. Effect of pioglitazone compared with glimepiride on carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA 2006; 296: 257281.
  • 20
    Perriello G, Pampanelli S, Di Pietro C, Brunetti P; Italian Pioglitazone Study Group. Comparison of glycaemic control over 1 year with pioglitazone or gliclazide in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 24652.
  • 21
    Tan M, Johns D, González Gálvez G et al. Effects of pioglitazone and glimepiride on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 68093.
  • 22
    Holman RR, Cull CA, Turner RC. A randomized double-blind trial of acarbose in type 2 diabetes shows improved glycemic control over 3 years (U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 44). Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 9604.
  • 23
    Gerich J, Raskin P, Jean-Louis L, Purkayastha D, Baron MA. PRESERVE-beta: two-year efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with nateglinide or glyburide plus metformin. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 20939.
  • 24
    Charbonnel B, Schernthaner G, Brunetti P et al. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of add-on pioglitazone therapy to failing monotherapy compared with addition of gliclazide or metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 1093104.
  • 25
    Derosa G, D’Angelo A, Fogari E et al. Nateglinide and glibenclamide metabolic effects in naïve type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin. J Clin Pharm Ther 2009; 34: 1323.
  • 26
    Derosa G, Cicero AF, Gaddi AV et al. Long-term effects of glimepiride or rosiglitazone in combination with metformin on blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients affected by the metabolic syndrome: a 12-month, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Clin Ther 2005; 27: 138391.
  • 27
    Scherbaum WA, Schweizer A, Mari A et al. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes and mild hyperglycaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10: 67582.
  • 28
    Dejager S, Razac S, Foley JE, Schweizer A. Vildagliptin in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study. Horm Metab Res 2007; 39: 21823.
  • 29
    Pi-Sunyer FX, Schweizer A, Mills D, Dejager S. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin monotherapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007; 76: 1328.
  • 30
    Rosenstock J, Kim SW, Baron MA et al. Efficacy and tolerability of initial combination therapy with vildagliptin and pioglitazone compared with component monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 17585.
  • 31
    Rosenstock J, Baron MA, Dejager S, Mills D, Schweizer A. Comparison of vildagliptin and rosiglitazone monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 24-week, double-blind, randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 21723.
  • 32
    Pan C, Yang W, Barona JP et al. Comparison of vildagliptin and acarbose monotherapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a 24-week, double-blind, randomized trial. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 43541.
  • 33
    Bolli G, Dotta F, Rochotte E, Cohen SE. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin vs. pioglitazone when added to metformin: a 24-week, randomized, double-blind study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10: 8290.
  • 34
    Bosi E, Camisasca RP, Collober C, Rochotte E, Garber AJ. Effects of vildagliptin on glucose control over 24 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 8905.
  • 35
    Garber AJ, Schweizer A, Baron MA, Rochotte E, Dejager S. Vildagliptin in combination with pioglitazone improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing thiazolidinedione monotherapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 16674.
  • 36
    Goldstein BJ, Feinglos MN, Lunceford JK, Johnson J, Williams-Herman DE. Effect of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, and metformin on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 197987.
  • 37
    Aschner P, Kipnes MS, Lunceford JK, Sanchez M, Mickel C, Williams-Herman DE. Effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin as monotherapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 26327.
  • 38
    Chan JC, Scott R, Arjona Ferreira JC et al. Safety and efficacy of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10: 54555.
  • 39
    Raz I, Chen Y, Wu M et al. Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24: 53750.
  • 40
    Hermansen K, Kipnes M, Luo E, Fanurik D, Khatami H, Stein P. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on glimepiride alone or on glimepiride and metformin. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 73345.
  • 41
    Nauck MA, Meininger G, Sheng D, Terranella L, Stein PP. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, compared with the sulfonylurea, glipizide, in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin alone: a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 194205.
  • 42
    Rosenstock J, Brazg R, Andryuk PJ, Lu K, Stein P. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin added to ongoing pioglitazone therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 155668.
  • 43
    Göke B, Hershon K, Kerr D et al. Efficacy and safety of vildagliptin monotherapy during 2-year treatment of drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: comparison with metformin. Horm Metab Res 2008; 40: 8925.
  • 44
    Rosenstock J, Niggli M, Maldonado-Lutomirsky M. Long-term 2-year safety and efficacy of vildagliptin compared with rosiglitazone in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009; 11: 5718.
  • 45
    Moretto TJ, Milton DR, Ridge TD et al. Efficacy and tolerability of exenatide monotherapy over 24 weeks in antidiabetic drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Clin Ther 2008; 30: 144860.
  • 46
    DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 1092100.
  • 47
    Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 262835.
  • 48
    Kendall DM, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and a sulfonylurea. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 108391.
  • 49
    Garber A, Henry R, Ratner R et al. Liraglutide versus glimepiride monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (LEAD-3 Mono): a randomised, 52-week, phase III, double-blind, parallel-treatment trial. Lancet 2009; 373: 47381.
  • 50
    Nauck M, Frid A, Hermansen K et al. Efficacy and safety comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in combination with metformin, in type 2 diabetes: the LEAD (liraglutide effect and action in diabetes)-2 study. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 8490.
  • 51
    Marre M, Shaw J, Brändle M et al. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, added to a sulphonylurea over 26 weeks produces greater improvements in glycaemic and weight control compared with adding rosiglitazone or placebo in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (LEAD-1 SU). Diabet Med 2009; 26: 26878.
  • 52
    Zinman B, Gerich J, Buse JB et al. Efficacy and safety of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and thiazolidinedione in patients with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD). Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 122430.
  • 53
    Buse JB, Rosenstock J, Sesti G et al. Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6). Lancet 2009; 374: 3947.
  • 54
    Pratley RE. Overview of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes. Medscape J Med 2008; 10: 171.
  • 55
    Monami M, Marchionni N, Mannucci E. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Endocrinol 2009; 160: 90917.
  • 56
    Klonoff DC, Buse JB, Nielsen LL et al. Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24: 27586.
  • 57
    Drucker DJ, Buse JB, Taylor K et al. Exenatide once weekly versus twice daily for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study. Lancet 2008; 372: 124050.
  • 58
    Wulffelé MG, Kooy A, De Zeeuw D, Stehouwer CD, Gansevoort RT. The effect of metformin on blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. J Intern Med 2004; 256: 114.
  • 59
    BaileyCJ, CampbellIW, ChanJCN, DavidsonJA, HowlettHCS, RitzP (eds). 2007. Metformin: the Gold Standard. A Scientific Handbook; Chichester: Wiley.
  • 60
    Grant PJ. The effects of metformin on the fibrinolytic system in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabete Metab 1991; 17: 16873.
  • 61
    Kurukulasuriya R, Banerji MA, Chaiken R, Lebovitz H. Selective decrease in visceral fat is associated with weight loss during metformin treatment in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1999; 48(Suppl.): A315.
  • 62
    Kalaitzidis RG, Sarafidis PA, Bakris GL. Effects of thiazolidinediones beyond glycaemic control. Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15: 52936.
  • 63
    Russell-Jones D, Vaag A, Schmitz O et al. Significantly better glycaemic control/weight reduction with human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide, than with insulin glargine: all as add-on to metformin + sulphonylurea in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2008; 51(Suppl. 1): S68.
  • 64
    Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M. Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 48694.
  • 65
    Feher MD, Al-Mrayat M, Brake J, Leong KS. Tolerability of prolonged-release metformin (Glucophage® SR) in individuals intolerant to standard metformin — results from four UK centres. Br J Diab Vasc Dis 2007; 7: 2258.
  • 66
    Salpeter S, Greyber E, Pasternak G, Salpeter E. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD002967.
  • 67
    Cryer DR, Nicholas SP, Henry DH, Mills DJ, Stadel BV. Comparative outcomes study of metformin intervention versus conventional approach the COSMIC Approach Study. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 53943.
  • 68
    Rizos CV, Elisaf MS, Mikhailidis DP, Liberopoulos EN. How safe is the use of thiazolidinediones in clinical practice? Expert Opin Drug Saf 2009; 8: 1532.
  • 69
    Hsiao FY, Huang WF, Wen YW, Chen PF, Kuo KN, Tsai YW. Thiazolidinediones and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study of over 473,000 patients using the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. Drug Saf 2009; 32: 67590.
  • 70
    Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 157789.
  • 71
    Kooy A, De Jager J, Lehert P et al. Long-term effects of metformin on metabolism and microvascular and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 61625.
  • 72
    Evans JM, Donnelly LA, Emslie-Smith AM, Alessi DR, Morris AD. Metformin and reduced risk of cancer in diabetic patients. BMJ 2005; 330: 13045.
  • 73
    Currie CJ, Poole CD, Gale EA. The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 176677.
  • 74
    Bowker SL, Majumdar SR, Veugelers P, Johnson JA. Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 2548.
  • 75
    Libby G, Donnelly LA, Donnan PT, Alessi DR, Morris AD, Evans JM. New users of metformin are at low risk of incident cancer: a cohort study among people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 16205.
  • 76
    ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 256072.
  • 77
    Betteridge DJ, DeFronzo RA, Chilton RJ. PROactive: time for a critical appraisal. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 96983.
  • 78
    Hanefeld M, Cagatay M, Petrowitsch T, Neuser D, Petzinna D, Rupp M. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 106.
  • 79
    Clinical Guidelines Task Force, International Diabetes Federation. 2005 Global Guideline for Type 2 Diabetes. http://www.idf.org/Global_guideline (accessed July 2009).
  • 80
    International Diabetes Federation. Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose. http://www.idf.org/guideline_postmeal (accessed July 2009).