• 1
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 83753.
  • 2
    Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995; 28: 10317.
  • 3
    Tibaldi J, Rakel RE. Why, when and how to initiate insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Clin Pract 2007; 61: 63344.
  • 4
    Yoon KH, Shin JA, Kwon HS et al. Comparison of the efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone monotherapy in Korean drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients: the practical evidence of antidiabetic monotherapy study. Diabetes Metab J 2011; 35: 2633.
  • 5
    Groop LC, Pelkonen R, Koskimies S et al. Secondary failure to treatment with oral antidiabetic agents in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Care 1986; 9: 12933.
  • 6
    Wright A, Burden AC, Paisey RB et al. Sulfonylurea inadequacy: efficacy of addition of insulin over 6 years in patients with type 2 diabetes in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 57). Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 3306.
  • 7
    Genuth S. Insulin use in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1990; 13: 124064.
  • 8
    Groop L, Schalin C, Franssila-Kallunki A et al. Characteristics of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with secondary failure to oral antidiabetic therapy. Am J Med 1989; 87: 18390.
  • 9
    Unnikrishnan AG, Tibaldi J, Hadley-Brown M et al. Practical guidance on intensification of insulin therapy with BIAsp 30: a consensus statement. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63: 15717.
  • 10
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 4129.
  • 11
    Lee BW, Kang HW, Heo JS et al. Insulin secretory defect plays a major role in the development of diabetes in patients with distal pancreatectomy. Metabolism 2006; 55: 13541.
  • 12
    Utzschneider KM, Prigeon RL, Faulenbach MV et al. Oral disposition index predicts the development of future diabetes above and beyond fasting and 2-h glucose levels. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 33541.
  • 13
    Wareham NJ, Phillips DI, Byrne CD, Hales CN. The 30 minute insulin incremental response in an oral glucose tolerance test as a measure of insulin secretion. Diabet Med 1995; 12: 931.
  • 14
    Eurich DT, Simpson SH, Majumdar SR, Johnson JA. Secondary failure rates associated with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25: 8106.
  • 15
    Kim DJ, Lee MS, Kim KW, Lee MK. Insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of korean type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2001; 50: 5903.
  • 16
    Lee BW, Kim SY, Kim JY et al. Heterogeneity of early-onset and ketosis-resistant diabetes in Korean subjects – is it possible to determine cut-off age of early-onset type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005; 70: 3845.
  • 17
    Byung-Wan L, Jun H, Yim HJ et al. Dysfunctional pancreatic beta-cells of critical stress play a more prominent role in the development of stress diabetes in critically burned Korean subjects. Metabolism 2010; 59: 130715.
  • 18
    Rhee SY, Kim JY, Chon S et al. The changes in early phase insulin secretion in newly diagnosed, drug naive korean prediabetes subjects. Korean Diabetes J 2010; 34: 15765.
  • 19
    Kitabchi AE, Temprosa M, Knowler WC et al. Role of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the evolution of type 2 diabetes in the diabetes prevention program: effects of lifestyle intervention and metformin. Diabetes 2005; 54: 240414.
  • 20
    Kayaniyil S, Vieth R, Retnakaran R et al. Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 137981.
  • 21
    Retnakaran R, Qi Y, Goran MI, Hamilton JK. Evaluation of proposed oral disposition index measures in relation to the actual disposition index. Diabet Med 2009; 26: 1198203.
  • 22
    Bergman RN, Ader M, Huecking K, Van Citters G. Accurate assessment of beta-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 2002; 51(Suppl 1): S21220.
  • 23
    Raskin P, Allen E, Hollander P et al. Initiating insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: a comparison of biphasic and basal insulin analogs. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2605.
  • 24
    Malone JK, Kerr LF, Campaigne BN et al. Combined therapy with insulin lispro Mix 75/25 plus metformin or insulin glargine plus metformin: a 16-week, randomized, open-label, crossover study in patients with type 2 diabetes beginning insulin therapy. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 203444.
  • 25
    Garber AJ, Wahlen J, Wahl T et al. Attainment of glycaemic goals in type 2 diabetes with once-, twice-, or thrice-daily dosing with biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (The 1-2-3 study). Diabetes Obes Metab 2006; 8: 5866.
  • 26
    Jang HC, Lee SR, Vaz JA. Biphasic insulin aspart 30 in the treatment of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a subgroup analysis of the PRESENT Korea NovoMixstudy. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009; 11: 206.
  • 27
    Tahara Y, Shima K. Evaluation of error levels in hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin in type 2 diabetic patients due to inter-individual variability. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 89: 11520.
  • 28
    Takahashi S, Uchino H, Shimizu T et al. Comparison of glycated albumin (GA) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetic patients: usefulness of GA for evaluation of short-term changes in glycemic control. Endocr J 2007; 54: 13944.
  • 29
    Koga M, Murai J, Saito H, Kasayama S. Glycated albumin and glycated hemoglobin are influenced differently by endogenous insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 2702.
  • 30
    Yoshiuchi K, Matsuhisa M, Katakami N et al. Glycated albumin is a better indicator for glucose excursion than glycated hemoglobin in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Endocr J 2008; 55: 5037.
  • 31
    Lee EY, Lee BY, Kim D et al. Glycated albumin is a useful glycation index for monitoring fluctuating and poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Diabetol 2011; 48: 16772.