Disclosures Jenö P. Marton, MD, Kelly H. Zou, PhD and Richard J. Willke, PhD are employees of Pfizer Inc. Karen Yeomans, BSc, Krista A. Payne, MEd, Elizabeth P. Merikle, PhD, Irina Proskorovsky, MSc and Qian Li, PhD are employees of United BioSource Corporation, which received payment from Pfizer for research and consulting services associated with this manuscript.
Smoking, smoking cessation and smoking relapse patterns: a web-based survey of current and former smokers in the US
Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
International Journal of Clinical Practice
Volume 65, Issue 10, pages 1043–1054, October 2011
How to Cite
Yeomans, K., Payne, K. A., Marton, J. P., Merikle, E. P., Proskorovsky, I., Zou, K. H., Li, Q. and Willke, R. J. (2011), Smoking, smoking cessation and smoking relapse patterns: a web-based survey of current and former smokers in the US. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 65: 1043–1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02758.x
Access to study data The study data that support the publication were circulated to all authors in the form of table shells, charts and figures.
Research ethics The study was approved by a central IRB prior to initiation. All participants were preregistered members of the YouGov panel and provided confirmation of consent prior to completing the survey. Residents of California were shown the California Experimental Subjects’ Bill of Rights as part of the online consent process.
Prior Publication The submitted work is not published, in press or currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
- Issue published online: 16 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011
Aim: The aim of this study was to characterise the natural course of smoking cessation behaviour in a web-based survey of current and former cigarette smokers (CS and FS) in the United States.
Methods: A web-based survey of CS and FS was conducted in April 2009; demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and smoking history (including the number of lifetime and length of latest quit attempts, aids used and time to relapse) were collated. The surveyed cohort was selected from prescreened CS and FS panellists and matched for age, race and education, to be representative of the US population. Descriptive statistics and time-to-event analyses using Kaplan–Meier curves were applied in the analysis of this report.
Results: The final cohort comprised 512 CS and 566 FS (n = 1078). A larger proportion of FS than CS reported a longest smoke-free period of > 1 year (78.8% vs. 22.4%, respectively). As a greater variety of smoking cessation products became available over time, the proportion of unassisted quit attempts decreased from 76.1% prior to 1983 to 43.9% after 2006 for CS and from 79.3% to 50.3% for FS. The cumulative proportion of subjects relapsing was 31.3% by 1 week and 79.3% by 6 months. The estimated median time to next quit attempt was approximately 360 days.
Conclusions: These data confirm that relapse is common and that as the variety of cessation modalities increase, the proportion of unassisted quit attempts decreases. Self-help or cold-turkey methods still provide significant alternatives even when pharmacotherapy is available. This study provides data related to the smoking history and smoking cessation patterns of a large, nationally representative sample of CS and FS.