To determine the efficacy of teriparatide supplementation for improving bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis and if effects vary with factors. We identified eight randomised controlled trials (n = 2388) using electronic databases, supplemented by a hand-search of the reference lists. All trials aimed to evaluate the efficacy of daily subcutaneous teriparatide injection in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The main outcomes were fracture risk and percentage change of BMD from baseline. Data were pooled by employing a random-effect model. In trials that reported BMD as an outcome, treatment was associated with an increase of bone mass of 8.14% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.72–9.55%; eight trials, n = 2206] in spine and 2.48% (95% CI: 1.67–3.29%; seven trials, n = 1303) at the hip. In trials that reported fracture as an outcome, treatment was associated with a 70% risk reduction in vertebral fractures (risk ratio 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21–0.44; three trials, n = 1452) and 38% risk reduction in non-vertebral fractures (risk ratio 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44–0.87; three trials, n = 1842). The PTH treatment with total calcium intake more than 1500 mg was related to a significant increase in BMD gains at total hip (1.40% vs. 3.72%; p = 0.004). However, long-term duration did not appear to contribute to differences in responsiveness to teriparatide. Evidence supports the use of teriparatide in treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who are at risk for fracture. Further studies directly comparing concurrent therapy and calcium supplement with long-term duration are warranted.