SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA et al. ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 218299.
  • 2
    Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14 (Suppl. 2): S1113.
  • 3
    British Cardiac Society, British Hypertension Society, Diabetes UK, HEART UK, Primary Care Cardiovascular Society, The Stroke Association. JBS 2: the Joint British Societies’ guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 2005; 91 (Suppl. V): v1v52.
  • 4
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Lipid Modification. London, UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2008 (Jun 17. Report No.: CG67).
  • 5
    Emberson J, Whincup P, Morris R, Walker M, Ebrahim S. Evaluating the impact of population and high-risk strategies for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 48491.
  • 6
    Penning-van Beest FJ, Termorshuizen F, Goettsch WG, Klungel OH, Kastelein JJ, Herings RM. Adherence to evidence-based statin guidelines reduces the risk of hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction by 40%: a cohort study. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 1549.
  • 7
    Anderson KM, Odell PM, Wilson PW, Kannel WB. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles. Am Heart J 1991; 121: 2938.
  • 8
    Sheridan S, Pignone M, Mulrow C. Framingham-based tools to calculate the global risk of coronary heart disease: a systematic review of tools for clinicians. J Gen Intern Med 2003; 18: 103952.
  • 9
    Tunstall-Pedoe H. Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Scores: ASSIGN, Framingham, QRISK and others: how to choose. Heart 2011; 97: 4424.
  • 10
    Assmann G, Schulte H, Cullen P, Seedorf U. Assessing risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: new data from the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study. Eur J Clin Invest 2007; 37: 92532.
  • 11
    Conroy RM, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 9871003.
  • 12
    Collins GS, Altman DG. An independent external validation and evaluation of QRISK cardiovascular risk prediction: a prospective open cohort study. BMJ 2009; 339: b2584.
  • 13
    Jackson R, Marshall R, Kerr A, Riddell T, Wells S. QRISK or Framingham for predicting cardiovascular risk? BMJ 2009; 339: b2673.
  • 14
    Wald NJ, Simmonds M, Morris JK. Screening for future cardiovascular disease using age alone compared with multiple risk factors and age. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e18742.
  • 15
    Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M. Re-assessing the contribution of serum total cholesterol, blood pressure and cigarette smoking to the aetiology of coronary heart disease: impact of regression dilution bias. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 171926.
  • 16
    Reynolds TM, Twomey P, Wierzbicki AS. Accuracy of cardiovascular risk estimation for primary prevention in patients without diabetes. J Cardiovasc Risk 2002; 9: 18390.
  • 17
    Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Robson J, Brindle P. Derivation, validation, and evaluation of a new QRISK model to estimate lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease: cohort study using QResearch database. BMJ 2010; 341: c6624.
  • 18
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Leip EP, Larson MG et al. Prediction of lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease by risk factor burden at 50 years of age. Circulation 2006; 113: 7918.
  • 19
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Dyer AR, Wang R, Daviglus ML, Greenland P. Risk factor burden in middle age and lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry). Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 53540.
  • 20
    Berry JD, Liu K, Folsom AR et al. Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study and multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2009; 119: 3829.
  • 21
    Peters SA, den Ruijter HM, Bots ML, Moons KG. Improvements in risk stratification for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease by imaging subclinical atherosclerosis: a systematic review. Heart 2012; 98: 17784.
  • 22
    Wierzbicki AS. Surrogate markers, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease prevention. Int J Clin Pract 2008; 62: 9817.
  • 23
    Ridker PM, Paynter NP, Rifai N, Gaziano JM, Cook NR. C-reactive protein and parental history improve global cardiovascular risk prediction: the Reynolds Risk Score for men. Circulation 2008; 118: 224351. 4p.
  • 24
    Helfand M, Buckley DI, Freeman M et al. Emerging risk factors for coronary heart disease: a summary of systematic reviews conducted for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: 496507.
  • 25
    Buckley DI, Fu R, Freeman M, Rogers K, Helfand M. C-reactive protein as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: 48395.
  • 26
    Cooney MT, Dudina AL, Graham IM. Value and limitations of existing scores for the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a review for clinicians. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54: 120927.
  • 27
    Moons KG, Kengne AP, Woodward M et al. Risk prediction models: I. Development, internal validation, and assessing the incremental value of a new (bio)marker. Heart 2012; 98: 68390.
  • 28
    Moons KG, Kengne AP, Grobbee DE et al. Risk prediction models: II. External validation, model updating, and impact assessment. Heart 2012; 98: 6918.
  • 29
    Cook NR. Methods for evaluating novel biomarkers - a new paradigm. Int J Clin Pract 2010; 64: 17237.
  • 30
    Romanens M, Ackermann F, Spence JD et al. Improvement of cardiovascular risk prediction: time to review current knowledge, debates, and fundamentals on how to assess test characteristics. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2010; 17: 1823.
  • 31
    de Graaf J, Holewijn S, Stalenhoef AF, Sniderman AD. Should preclinical vascular abnormalities be measured in asymptomatic adults to improve cardiovascular risk stratification? Curr Opin Lipidol 2011; 22: 4549.
  • 32
    Cook NR, Paynter NP. Performance of reclassification statistics in comparing risk prediction models. Biom J 2011; 53: 23758.
  • 33
    Steyerberg EW, Vickers AJ, Cook NR et al. Assessing the performance of prediction models: a framework for traditional and novel measures. Epidemiology 2010; 21: 12838.
  • 34
    Bannerjee A. A review of family history of cardiovascular disease: risk factor and research tool. Int J Clin Pract 2012; 66: 53643.
  • 35
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Nam BH, D’Agostino RB Sr et al. Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: a prospective study of parents and offspring. JAMA 2004; 291: 220411.
  • 36
    Murabito JM, Nam BH, D’Agostino RB Sr, Lloyd-Jones DM, O’Donnell CJ, Wilson PW. Accuracy of offspring reports of parental cardiovascular disease history: the Framingham Offspring Study. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 43440.
  • 37
    Woodward M, Brindle P, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Adding social deprivation and family history to cardiovascular risk assessment: the ASSIGN score from the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC). Heart 2007; 93: 1726.
  • 38
    Nasir K, Budoff MJ, Wong ND et al. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and coronary artery calcification: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation 2007; 116: 61926.
  • 39
    Wierzbicki AS, Humphries SE, Minhas R. Familial hypercholesterolaemia: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2008; 337: a1095.
  • 40
    Wierzbicki AS, Graham CA, Young IS, Nicholls DP. Familial combined hyperlipidaemia: under - defined and under - diagnosed? Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2008; 6: 1322.
  • 41
    Genest JJ Jr, Martin-Munley SS, McNamara JR et al. Familial lipoprotein disorders in patients with premature coronary artery disease. Circulation 1992; 85: 202533.
  • 42
    Schunkert H, Erdmann J, Samani NJ. Genetics of myocardial infarction: a progress report. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 91825.
  • 43
    D’Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001; 286: 1807.
  • 44
    Brindle P, Beswick A, Fahey T, Ebrahim S. Accuracy and impact of risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Heart 2006; 92: 17529.
  • 45
    Sacco RL, Khatri M, Rundek T et al. Improving global vascular risk prediction with behavioral and anthropometric factors. The multiethnic NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Cohort Study). J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54: 230311.
  • 46
    Cushman M, McClure LA, Howard VJ, Jenny NS, Lakoski SG, Howard G. Implications of increased C-reactive protein for cardiovascular risk stratification in black and white men and women in the US. Clin Chem 2009; 55: 162736.
  • 47
    Brindle P, May M, Gill P et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a web-based risk score for seven British black and minority ethnic groups. Heart 2006; 92: 1595602.
  • 48
    Brunner EJ, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Kivimaki M, Witte DR. Do the Joint British Society (JBS2) guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease with respect to plasma glucose improve risk stratification in the general population? Prospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2010; 27: 5505.
  • 49
    Simmons RK, Coleman RL, Price HC et al. Performance of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine and the Framingham Risk Equations in Estimating Cardiovascular Disease in the. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 70813.
  • 50
    Tziomalos K, Athyros VG, Wierzbicki AS, Mikhailidis DP. Lipoprotein a: where are we now? Curr Opin Cardiol 2009; 24: 3517.
  • 51
    Kamstrup PR, Benn M, Tybaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation 2008; 117: 17684.
  • 52
    Nordestgaard BG, Chapman MJ, Ray K et al. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 284453.
  • 53
    Danesh J, Lewington S, Thompson SG et al. Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. JAMA 2005; 294: 1799809.
  • 54
    Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM et al. C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 138797.
  • 55
    Kaptoge S, Di AE, Lowe G et al. C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: 13240.
  • 56
    Myers GL, Christenson RH, Cushman M et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice guidelines: emerging biomarkers for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Clin Chem 2009; 55: 37884.
  • 57
    Ridker PM, Cook N. Clinical usefulness of very high and very low levels of C-reactive protein across the full range of Framingham Risk Scores. Circulation 2004; 109: 19559.
  • 58
    Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 2195207.
  • 59
    Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA et al. Reduction in C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular event rates after initiation of rosuvastatin: a prospective study of the JUPITER trial. Lancet 2009; 373: 117582.
  • 60
    Sever PS, Poulter NR, Chang CL et al. Evaluation of C-reactive protein prior to and on-treatment as a predictor of benefit from atorvastatin: observations from the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. Eur Heart J 2012; 33: 48694.
  • 61
    Herder C, Baumert J, Zierer A et al. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e19852.
  • 62
    Wilson PW, Nam BH, Pencina M, D’Agostino RB Sr, Benjamin EJ, O’Donnell CJ. C-reactive protein and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women from the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 24738.
  • 63
    Wilson PW, Pencina M, Jacques P, Selhub J, D’Agostino R Sr, O’Donnell CJ. C-reactive protein and reclassification of cardiovascular risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2008; 1: 927.
  • 64
    Wannamethee SG, Welsh P, Lowe GD et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic Peptide is a more useful predictor of cardiovascular disease risk than C-reactive protein in older men with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58: 5664.
  • 65
    Davidson MH, Corson MA, Alberts MJ et al. Consensus panel recommendation for incorporating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 testing into cardiovascular disease risk assessment guidelines. Am J Cardiol 2008; 101: 51F7F.
  • 66
    Lp-PLA(2) Studies Collaboration, Thompson A, Gao P et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and risk of coronary disease, stroke, and mortality: collaborative analysis of 32 prospective studies. Lancet 2010; 375: 153644.
  • 67
    Koenig W, Khuseyinova N, Lowel H, Trischler G, Meisinger C. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 adds to risk prediction of incident coronary events by C-reactive protein in apparently healthy middle-aged men from the general population: results from the 14-year follow-up of a large cohort from southern Germany. Circulation 2004; 110: 19038.
  • 68
    Heart Protection Study Group. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A activity and mass in relation to vascular disease and nonvascular mortality. J Intern Med 2010; 268: 34858.
  • 69
    Blankenberg S, McQueen MJ, Smieja M et al. Comparative impact of multiple biomarkers and N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in the context of conventional risk factors for the prediction of recurrent cardiovascular events in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Circulation 2006; 114: 2018.
  • 70
    Emberson JR, Ng LL, Armitage J, Bowman L, Parish S, Collins R. N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, vascular disease risk, and cholesterol reduction among 20,536 patients in the MRC/BHF heart protection study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 49: 3119.
  • 71
    Schnabel RB, Larson MG, Yamamoto JF et al. Relations of biomarkers of distinct pathophysiological pathways and atrial fibrillation incidence in the community. Circulation 2010; 121: 2007.
  • 72
    Schnabel RB, Sullivan LM, Levy D et al. Development of a risk score for atrial fibrillation (Framingham Heart Study): a community-based cohort study. Lancet 2009; 373: 73945.
  • 73
    Blankenberg S, Zeller T, Saarela O et al. Contribution of 30 biomarkers to 10-year cardiovascular risk estimation in 2 population cohorts: the MONICA, risk, genetics, archiving, and monograph (MORGAM) biomarker project. Circulation 2010; 121: 238897.
  • 74
    Hughes MF, Saarela O, Blankenberg S et al. A multiple biomarker risk score for guiding clinical decisions using a decision curve approach. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2012; in press.
  • 75
    Wild PS, Schnabel RB, Lubos E et al. Midregional proadrenomedullin for prediction of cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: results from the AtheroGene study. Clin Chem 2012; 58: 22636.
  • 76
    Melander O, Newton-Cheh C, Almgren P et al. Novel and conventional biomarkers for prediction of incident cardiovascular events in the community. JAMA 2009; 302: 4957.
  • 77
    Jaffe AS. The 10 commandments of troponin, with special reference to high sensitivity assays. Heart 2011; 97: 9406.
  • 78
    Saunders JT, Nambi V, de Lemos JA et al. Cardiac troponin T measured by a highly sensitive assay predicts coronary heart disease, heart failure, and mortality in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 2011; 123: 136776.
  • 79
    Everett BM, Cook NR, Magnone MC et al. Sensitive cardiac troponin T assay and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with and without diabetes mellitus: the Women’s Health Study. Circulation 2011; 123: 28118.
  • 80
    Apple FS, Steffen LM, Pearce LA, Murakami MM, Luepker RV. Increased Cardiac Troponin I as Measured by a High-Sensitivity Assay Is associated with High Odds of Cardiovascular Death: The Minnesota Heart Survey. Clin Chem 2012; 58: 9305.
  • 81
    Savukoski T, Engstrom E, Engblom J et al. Troponin-Specific Autoantibody Interference in Different Cardiac Troponin I Assay Configurations. Clin Chem 2012; in press.
  • 82
    Boger RH. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): a novel risk marker in cardiovascular medicine and beyond. Ann Med 2006; 38: 12636.
  • 83
    Leong T, Zylberstein D, Graham I et al. Asymmetric dimethylarginine independently predicts fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke in women: 24-year follow-up of the population study of women in Gothenburg. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28: 9617.
  • 84
    Raiko JR, Magnussen CG, Kivimaki M et al. Cardiovascular risk scores in the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: evidence from the cardiovascular risk in a young Finns study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2010; 17: 54955.
  • 85
    Peters SA, den Ruijter HM, Bots ML. The incremental value of brachial flow-mediated dilation measurements in risk stratification for incident cardiovascular events: A systematic review. Ann Med 2012; 44: 30512.
  • 86
    Anderson TJ, Charbonneau F, Title LM et al. Microvascular function predicts cardiovascular events in primary prevention: long-term results from the Firefighters and Their Endothelium (FATE) study. Circulation 2011; 123: 1639.
  • 87
    Yeboah J, Folsom AR, Burke GL et al. Predictive value of brachial flow-mediated dilation for incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2009; 120: 5029.
  • 88
    Kullo IJ, Bielak LF, Turner ST, Sheedy PF, Peyser PA. Aortic pulse wave velocity is associated with the presence and quantity of coronary artery calcium: a community-based study. Hypertension 2006; 47: 1749.
  • 89
    Kavousi M, Elias-Smale S, Rutten JH et al. Evaluation of newer risk markers for coronary heart disease risk classification: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 43844.
  • 90
    Rodondi N, Marques-Vidal P, Butler J et al. Markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation for prediction of coronary heart disease in older adults. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171: 5409.
  • 91
    Ferket BS, Spronk S, Colkesen EB, Hunink MG. Systematic review of guidelines on peripheral artery disease screening. Am J Med 2012; 125: 198208.
  • 92
    Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration, Fowkes FG, Murray GD et al. Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2008; 300: 197208.
  • 93
    Bots ML. Carotid intima-media thickness as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular disease in intervention studies. Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22: 218190.
  • 94
    O’Leary DH, Bots ML. Imaging of atherosclerosis: carotid intima-media thickness. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 16829.
  • 95
    Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst RT et al. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008; 21: 93111.
  • 96
    Peters SA, den Ruijter HM, Palmer MK et al. Manual or semi-automated edge detection of the maximal far wall common carotid intima-media thickness: a direct comparison. J Intern Med 2012; 271: 24756.
  • 97
    Dogan S, Duivenvoorden R, Grobbee DE et al. Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima-media thickness in trials; comparison of reproducibility, rate of progression, and effect of intervention in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia and subjects with mixed dyslipidemia. Ann Med 2010; 42: 44764.
  • 98
    Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55: 16007.
  • 99
    Arad Y, Goodman KJ, Roth M, Newstein D, Guerci AD. Coronary calcification, coronary disease risk factors, C-reactive protein, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events: the St. Francis Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 15865.
  • 100
    Polonsky TS, McClelland RL, Jorgensen NW et al. Coronary artery calcium score and risk classification for coronary heart disease prediction. JAMA 2010; 303: 16106.
  • 101
    Budoff MJ, McClelland RL, Nasir K et al. Cardiovascular events with absent or minimal coronary calcification: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am Heart J 2009; 158: 55461.
  • 102
    Folsom AR, Kronmal RA, Detrano RC et al. Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 13339.
  • 103
    Blaha MJ, Budoff MJ, DeFilippis AP et al. Associations between C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and cardiovascular events: implications for the JUPITER population from MESA, a population-based cohort study. Lancet 2011; 378: 68492.
  • 104
    Department of Health. Putting Prevention First: NHS Health Check: Vascular Risk Assessment and Management Best Practice Guidance. London, UK: Department of Health, 2009 (Apr 3. Report No.: 11473).
  • 105
    Naghavi M, Falk E, Hecht HS et al. From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient--Part III: Executive summary of the Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force report. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98: 2H15H.