• 1
    Ivancic JJ, Bryce D, Bolton PS. Use of prevocational test by clinicians to predict vulnerability of patients to vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Chiror J Aust 1993; 23: 5963.
  • 2
    Stratton RG, Sweeney J, Grandage J. Review of the Relationship of Chiropractic Services to the Public Health System in Western Australia Community Health Survey Report. Pert, Western Australia: Perth Institute for Social Program Evaluation, Murdoch University, 1990: 756.
  • 3
    Hurwitz EL, Coulter ID, Adams AH et al. Use of chiropractic services from1985 through 1991 in the United States and Canada. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 7716.
  • 4
    Hurwitz EL, Chiang LM. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America and general practitioner patients in North America: findings from the joint Canada/United States Survey of Health, 2002-3. BMC Health Serv Res 2006; 6: 4966.
  • 5
    Magarey ME, Rebbeck T, Coughlan B, Grimmer K, Rivett DA, Refshauge K. Pre-manipulative testing of the cervical spine review, revision and new clinical guidelines. Man Ther 2004; 9: 95100.
  • 6
    Reggars J, French S, Walker B et al. Risk management for chiropractors and osteopaths: neck manipulation and vertebrobasilar stroke. Aust Chiropr Osteopathy 2003; 1: 915.
  • 7
    Haynes MJ. Stroke following cervical manipulation in Perth. Chiropr J Aust 1994; 24: 426.
  • 8
    Assendelft WJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Complications of spinal manipulation. A comprehensive review of the literature. J Family Pract 1996; 42: 475–80.
  • 9
    Rubinstein SM, Haldeman S, van Tulder MW. An etiologic model to help explain the pathogenesis of cervical artery dissection: implications for cervical manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2006; 29: 3368.
  • 10
    Lee VH, Brown RD Jr, Mandrekker JN, Mokri B. Incidence and outcome of cervical artery dissections: a population based study. Neurology 2006; 67: 180912.
  • 11
    Kapral MK, Bondy SJ. Cervical manipulation and the risk of stroke. CMAJ 2001; 165: 9078.
  • 12
    Silbert PL, Mokri B, Schievink WL. Headache and neck pain in spontaneous internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. Neurology 1995; 45: 151722.
  • 13
    Schievink WI. Current concepts: spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries. New Eng J Med 2001; 344: 898906.
  • 14
    Terrett AGJ. Malpractice Avoidance for Chiropractors: Vertebrobasilar Complications Following Spinal Manipulation. West Des Moines: National Mutual Chiropractic Insurance Company; 1996:15.
  • 15
    Michaud TC. Uneventful upper cervical manipulation in the presence of a damaged vertebral artery. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002; 25: 4728.
  • 16
    Mas JL, Henin D, Bousser M, Chain F, Hauer J. Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery and cervical manipulation. A case report with autopsy. Neurology 1989; 39: 5125.
  • 17
    Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M. Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebral artery dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation. Spine 1999; 24: 78594.
  • 18
    Haynes MJ. Vertebral arteries and cervical movement: Doppler ultrasound for pre-manipulative screening. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002; 9: 55667.
  • 19
    Ernst E. Vascular accidents after neck manipulation. Cause or coincidence?. Int J Clin Practice 2010; 64: 6737.
  • 20
    Rubinstein SM, Peerdeman SM, van Tulder MW, Riphagen I, Haldeman S. A systematic review of the risk factors for cervical artery dissection. Stroke 2005; 36: 15758.
  • 21
    Rothwell DM, Bondy SJ, Williams JL. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke. A population -based case-control study. Stroke 2001; 32: 105460.
  • 22
    Smith WS, Johnston SC, Skalabrin EJ et al. Spinal manipulative therapy is an independent risk factor for vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 2003; 60: 14248.
  • 23
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, the PRISMA Group. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis: the PRISMA statement. PLOSMed 2009; 6: e1000097103.
  • 24
    Dittrich R, Rohsbach D, Heidbreder A et al. Mild mechanical traumas are possible risk factors for cervical artery dissection. Cerebrovasc. Dis 2006; 23: 27581.
  • 25
    Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Cote P et al. Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care: results of a population based case-control and case-crossover study. Spine 2008; 33(Suppl. 4): 17683.
  • 26
    Thomas LC, Rivet DA Thomas LC, Rivet DA Attia JR, Parsons M, Levi C. Risk factors and clinical features of craniocervical dissection. Man Ther 2011; 16: 3516.
  • 27
    Bogousslavsky J, Van Melle G, Regli F. The Lausanne stroke registry: analysis of 1,000 consecutive patients with first stroke. Stroke 1988; 19: 108392.
  • 28
    Bottone FG, Barry WT. Postmarketing surveillance of serious adverse events associated with the use of rofexicob from 1999-2002. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25: 153550.
  • 29
    Caughey GE, Roughhead EE, Pratt N, Killer G, Gilbert AL. Stroke risk and NSAIDs: an Australian population based study. MJA 2011; 195: 5259.
  • 30
    Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW. Thunderclap stroke: embolic cerebellar infarcts presenting as thunderclap headache. Headache 2006; 46: 5202.
  • 31
    Gossrau G, Dannenburg C, Reichmann H, Sabatowski R. Thunderclap headache caused by cerebellar infarction. Schmerz 2008; 22: 826.
  • 32
    Maigne JY. Letter to the editor. Spine 2008; 33: 2838.Re: Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Cote P, He Y, Hogg-43.Johnson S, Silver FL, Bondy SJ. Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care: results of a population based case–control and case-crossover study. Spine. 2008; 33(Suppl. 4): 176–83.
  • 33
    Redelmeir DA, Tibshirani RJ. Interpretation and bias in case cross-over studies. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 12817.
  • 34
    Koepsell TD, Weiss NS. Epidemiological Methods. Studying the Occurrence of Illness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003: 40910.
  • 35
    Reynolds K, Lewis B, Nolan JDL, Kinney JL, Sathya B, He J. Alcohol consumption and risk of stroke. JAM 2003; 289: 57988.
  • 36
    Palm F, Urbanec C, Grau A. Infection, its treatment and the risk for stroke. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009; 7: 14652.
  • 37
    Dabbs V, Lauretti WJ. A risk assessment of cervical manipulation vs NSAIDs for the treatment of neck pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995; 25: 426.
  • 38
    Tsokos M, Schmoidt A. Contribution of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to deaths associated with peptic ulcer disease: a prospective toxicological analysis of autopsy blood samples. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125: 15724.
  • 39
    Gordis L. Epidemiology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2009: 102.
  • 40
    Haynes MJ. Doppler studies comparing the effects of cervical rotation and lateral flexion on vertebral artery blood flow. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996; 19: 37884.