Aims:  This retrospective administrative claims-based study evaluated comparative persistence and adherence to overactive bladder (OAB) medications in US patients with and without diabetes.

Methods:  Patients ≥ 18 years who initiated OAB medications between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2008 were analysed from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. A 12-month baseline period prior to OAB medication initiation was used to classify patients into diabetes and non-diabetes cohorts, and measure demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in each cohort were directly matched 1 : 1 based on index year, age, gender and geographic region. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare cohorts on outcomes of ≥ 80% adherence to OAB medications and refilling a second OAB medication prescription. Cox’s proportional hazards model compared time to non-persistence with OAB medications between both cohorts.

Results:  In total, 36,560 patients were included in each cohort. Compared with the non-diabetes cohort, the diabetes cohort had 21.5% higher odds of ≥ 80% adherence to OAB medications, 16.6% higher odds of filling a second OAB medication prescription and 10.3% lower hazard of non-persistence with OAB medications during a 12-month evaluation period.

Conclusions:  Patients with diabetes were more persistent and adherent to OAB medications and had higher odds of filling a second medication prescription than patients without diabetes. Further research is needed to identify factors responsible for these findings.