Numerous innovations in high-throughput protein production and microarray surface technologies have enabled the development of addressable formats for proteins ordered at high spatial density. Protein array implementations have largely focused on antibody arrays for high-throughput protein profiling. However, it is also possible to construct arrays of full-length, functional proteins from a library of expression clones. The advent of protein-based microarrays allows the global observation of biochemical activities on an unprecedented scale, where hundreds or thousands of proteins can be simultaneously screened for protein–protein, protein–nucleic acid, and small molecule interactions. This technology holds great potential for basic molecular biology research, disease marker identification, toxicological reponse profiling and pharmaceutical target screening.