SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Hidalgo J, Aschner M, Zatta P & Vasak M (2001) Roles of the metallothionein family of proteins in the central nervous system. Brain Res Bull 55, 133145.
  • 2
    Searle PF, Davison BL, Stuart GW, Wilkie TM, Norstedt G & Palmiter RD (1984) Regulation, linkage, and sequence of mouse metallothionein I and II genes. Mol Cell Biol 4, 12211230.
  • 3
    Ghoshal K & Jacob ST (2001) Regulation of metallothionein gene expression. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 66, 357384.
  • 4
    Klaassen CD, Liu J & Choudhuri S (1999) Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 39, 267294.
  • 5
    Vallee BL (1979) Metallothionein: historical review and perspectives. Experientia Suppl. 34, 1939.
  • 6
    Vasak M (2005) Advances in metallothionein structure and functions. J Trace Elem Med Biol 19, 1317.
  • 7
    Haq F, Mahoney M & Koropatnick J (2003) Signaling events for metallothionein induction. Mutat Res 533, 211226.
  • 8
    Penkowa M, Nielsen H, Hidalgo J, Bernth N & Moos T (1999) Distribution of metallothionein I + II and vesicular zinc in the developing central nervous system: correlative study in the rat. J Comp Neurol 412, 303318.
  • 9
    Penkowa M & Hidalgo J (2001) Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Exp Neurol 170, 114.
  • 10
    Penkowa M, Giralt M, Thomsen PS, Carrasco J & Hidalgo J (2001) Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes. J Neurotrauma 18, 447463.
  • 11
    Miles AT, Hawksworth GM, Beattie JH & Rodilla V (2000) Induction, regulation, degradation, and biological significance of mammalian metallothioneins. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 35, 3570.
  • 12
    Quaife CJ, Findley SD, Erickson JC, Froelick GJ, Kelly EJ, Zambrowicz BP & Palmiter RD (1994) Induction of a new metallothionein isoform (MT-IV) occurs during differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia. Biochemistry 33, 72507259.
  • 13
    van Lookeren CM, Thibodeaux H, van Bruggen N, Cairns B, Gerlai R, Palmer JT, Williams SP & Lowe DG (1999) Evidence for a protective role of metallothionein-1 in focal cerebral ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 1287012875.
  • 14
    Kohler LB, Berezin V, Bock E & Penkowa M (2003) The role of metallothionein II in neuronal differentiation. and Survival Brain Res 992, 128136.
  • 15
    Chung RS, Vickers JC, Chuah MI & West AK (2003) Metallothionein-IIA promotes initial neurite elongation and postinjury reactive neurite growth and facilitates healing after focal cortical brain injury. J Neurosci 23, 33363342.
  • 16
    Chung RS, Adlard PA, Dittmann J, Vickers JC, Chuah MI & West AK (2004) Neuron-glia communication: metallothionein expression is specifically up-regulated by astrocytes in response to neuronal injury. J Neurochem 88, 454461.
  • 17
    Espejo C, Penkowa M, Demestre M, Montalban X & Martinez-Caceres EM (2005) Time-course expression of CNS inflammatory, neurodegenerative tissue repair markers and metallothioneins during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroscience 132, 11351149.
  • 18
    Penkowa M, Camats J, Hadberg H, Quintana A, Rojas S, Giralt M, Molinero A, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2003) Astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-6 protects the central nervous system during neuroglial degeneration induced by 6-aminonicotinamide. J Neurosci Res 73, 481496.
  • 19
    Penkowa M, Espejo C, Martinez-Caceres EM, Montalban X & Hidalgo J (2003) Increased demyelination and axonal damage in metallothionein I+II-deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Cell Mol Life Sci 60, 185197.
  • 20
    Penkowa M, Florit S, Giralt M, Quintana A, Molinero A, Carrasco J & Hidalgo J (2005) Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures. J Neurosci Res 79, 522534.
  • 21
    Hidalgo J, Penkowa M, Giralt M, Carrasco J & Molinero A (2002) Metallothionein expression and oxidative stress in the brain. Methods Enzymol 348, 238249.
  • 22
    Penkowa M & Hidalgo J (2003) Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci Res 72, 574586.
  • 23
    Stankovic RK (2005) Atrophy of large myelinated axons in metallothionein-I, II knockout mice. Cell Mol Neurobiol 25, 943953.
  • 24
    Poulsen CB, Penkowa M, Borup R, Nielsen FC, Caceres M, Quintana A, Molinero A, Carrasco J, Giralt M & Hidalgo J (2005) Brain response to traumatic brain injury in wild-type and interleukin-6 knockout mice: a microarray analysis. J Neurochem 92, 417432.
  • 25
    Ceballos D, Lago N, Verdu E, Penkowa M, Carrasco J, Navarro X, Palmiter RD & Hidalgo J (2003) Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function. and Regeneration Cell Mol Life Sci 60, 12091216.
  • 26
    Gong YH & Elliott JL (2000) Metallothionein expression is altered in a transgenic murine model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Exp Neurol 162, 2736.
  • 27
    Nagano S, Satoh M, Sumi H, Fujimura H, Tohyama C, Yanagihara T & Sakoda S (2001) Reduction of metallothioneins promotes the disease expression of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice in a dose-dependent manner. Eur J Neurosci 13, 13631370.
  • 28
    Penkowa M, Giralt M, Camats J & Hidalgo J (2002) Metallothionein 1+2 protect the CNS during neuroglial degeneration induced by 6-aminonicotinamide. J Comp Neurol 444, 174189.
  • 29
    Ogra Y & Suzuki KT (2000) Nuclear trafficking of metallothionein: possible mechanisms and current knowledge. Cell Mol Biol 46, 357365.
  • 30
    Chung RS & West AK (2004) A role for extracellular metallothioneins in CNS injury and repair. Neuroscience 123, 595599.
  • 31
    Giralt M, Penkowa M, Lago N, Molinero A & Hidalgo J (2002) Metallothionein-1+2 protect the CNS after a focal brain injury. Exp Neurol 173, 114128.
  • 32
    Penkowa M, Quintana A, Carrasco J, Giralt M, Molinero A & Hidalgo J (2004) Metallothionein prevents neurodegeneration and central nervous system cell death after treatment with gliotoxin 6-aminonicotinamide. J Neurosci Res 77, 3553.
  • 33
    Cherian MG & Apostolova MD (2000) Nuclear localization of metallothionein during cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell Mol Biol 46, 347356.
  • 34
    Maret W (2002) Optical methods for measuring zinc binding and release, zinc coordination environments in zinc finger proteins, and redox sensitivity and activity of zinc-bound thiols. Methods Enzymol 348, 230237.
  • 35
    Trayhurn P, Duncan JS, Wood AM & Beattie JH (2000) Regulation of metallothionein gene expression and secretion in rat adipocytes differentiated from preadipocytes in primary culture. Horm Metab Res 32, 542547.
  • 36
    Takahashi Y, Ogra Y & Suzuki KT (2005) Nuclear trafficking of metallothionein requires oxidation of a cytosolic partner. J Cell Physiol 202, 563569.
  • 37
    Woo ES, Dellapiazza D, Wang AS & Lazo JS (2000) Energy-dependent nuclear binding dictates metallothionein localization. J Cell Physiol 182, 6976.
  • 38
    Trayhurn P, Duncan JS, Wood AM & Beattie JH (2000) Metallothionein gene expression and secretion in white adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 279, R2329R2335.
  • 39
    West AK, Chuah MI, Vickers JC & Chung RS (2004) Protective role of metallothioneins in the injured mammalian brain. Rev Neurosci 15, 157166.
  • 40
    Ebadi M, Brown-Borg H, El Refaey H, Singh BB, Garrett S, Shavali S & Sharma SK (2005) Metallothionein-mediated neuroprotection in genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 134, 6775.
  • 41
    Ebadi M, Sharma SK, Ghafourifar P, Brown-Borg H & El Refaey H (2005) Peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and the neuroprotective role of. Metallothioneins Meth Enzymol 396, 276298.
  • 42
    Penkowa M & Hidalgo J (2000) Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Glia 32, 247263.
  • 43
    Klassen RB, Crenshaw K, Kozyraki R, Verroust PJ, Tio L, Atrian S, Allen PL & Hammond TG (2004) Megalin mediates renal uptake of heavy metal metallothionein complexes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287, F393F403.
  • 44
    Andrews GK (2000) Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by oxidative stress and metal ions. Biochem Pharmacol 59, 95104.
  • 45
    Kondoh M, Inoue Y, Atagi S, Futakawa N, Higashimoto M & Sato M (2001) Specific induction of metallothionein synthesis by mitochondrial oxidative stress. Life Sci 69, 21372146.
  • 46
    Andrews GK & Geiser J (1999) Expression of the mouse metallothionein-I and -II genes provides a reproductive advantage during maternal dietary zinc deficiency. J Nutr 129, 16431648.
  • 47
    Beattie JH, Wood AM, Trayhurn P, Jasani B, Vincent A, McCormack G & West AK (2000) Metallothionein is expressed in adipocytes of brown fat and is induced by catecholamines and zinc. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278, R1082R1089.
  • 48
    Carrasco J, Hernandez J, Gonzalez B, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (1998) Localization of metallothionein-I and -III expression in the CNS of transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin 6. Exp Neurol 153, 184194.
  • 49
    Carrasco J, Giralt M, Penkowa M, Stalder AK, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2000) Metallothioneins are upregulated in symptomatic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Exp Neurol 163, 4654.
  • 50
    Giralt M, Carrasco J, Penkowa M, Morcillo MA, Santamaria J, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2001) Astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-3 and interferon-alpha causes region-specific changes in metallothionein expression in the brain. Exp Neurol 168, 334346.
  • 51
    Hernandez J, Molinero A, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (1997) Transgenic expression of interleukin 6 in the central nervous system regulates brain metallothionein-I and -III expression in mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 48, 125131.
  • 52
    Carrasco J, Hernandez J, Bluethmann H & Hidalgo J (1998) Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha type 1 receptor deficient mice reveal a role of IL-6 and TNF-alpha on brain metallothionein-I and -III regulation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 57, 221234.
  • 53
    Penkowa M, Molinero A, Carrasco J & Hidalgo J (2001) Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures. Neuroscience 102, 805818.
  • 54
    Penkowa M, Moos T, Carrasco J, Hadberg H, Molinero A, Bluethmann H & Hidalgo J (1999) Strongly compromised inflammatory response to brain injury in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Glia 25, 343357.
  • 55
    Penkowa M, Poulsen C, Carrasco J & Hidalgo J (2002) M-CSF deficiency leads to reduced metallothioneins I and II expression and increased tissue damage in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment. Exp Neurol 176, 308321.
  • 56
    Tang CM, Westling J & Seto E (1999) trans repression of the human metallothionein IIA gene promoter by PZ120, a novel 120-kilodalton zinc finger protein. Mol Cell Biol 19, 680689.
  • 57
    Vasconcelos MH, Tam SC, Beattie JH & Hesketh JE (1996) Evidence for differences in the post-transcriptional regulation of rat metallothionein isoforms. Biochem J 315, 665671.
  • 58
    Vasconcelos MH, Tam SC, Hesketh JE, Reid M & Beattie JH (2002) Metal- and tissue-dependent relationship between metallothionein mRNA and protein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 182, 9197.
  • 59
    Steinebach OM & Wolterbeek BT (1992) Metallothionein biodegradation in rat hepatoma cells: a compartmental analysis aided 35S-radiotracer study. Biochim Biophys Acta 1116, 155165.
  • 60
    Hahn SH, Yoo OJ & Gahl WA (2001) Effect of metal ions on the stability of metallothionein in the degradation by cellular fractions in vitro. Exp Mol Med 33, 3236.
  • 61
    Kershaw WC & Klaassen CD (1992) Degradation and metal composition of hepatic isometallothioneins in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 112, 2431.
  • 62
    Michalska AE & Choo KH (1993) Targeting and germ-line transmission of a null mutation at the metallothionein I and II loci in mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 80888092.
  • 63
    Masters BA, Kelly EJ, Quaife CJ, Brinster RL & Palmiter RD (1994) Targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes increases sensitivity to cadmium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 584588.
  • 64
    Natale JE, Knight JB, Cheng Y, Rome JE & Gallo V (2004) Metallothionein I and II mitigate age-dependent secondary brain injury. J Neurosci Res 78, 303314.
  • 65
    Penkowa M, Carrasco J, Giralt M, Moos T & Hidalgo J (1999) CNS wound healing is severely depressed in metallothionein I- and II-deficient mice. J Neurosci 19, 25352545.
  • 66
    Penkowa M, Carrasco J, Giralt M, Molinero A, Hernandez J, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2000) Altered central nervous system cytokine-growth factor expression profiles and angiogenesis in metallothionein-I+II deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20, 11741189.
  • 67
    Giralt M, Penkowa M, Hernandez J, Molinero A, Carrasco J, Lago N, Camats J, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2002) Metallothionein-1+2 deficiency increases brain pathology in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin 6. Neurobiol Dis 9, 319338.
  • 68
    Penkowa M, Giralt M, Moos T, Thomsen PS, Hernandez J & Hidalgo J (1999) Impaired inflammatory response to glial cell death in genetically metallothionein-I- and -II-deficient mice. Exp Neurol 156, 149164.
  • 69
    Penkowa M, Espejo C, Martinez-Caceres EM, Poulsen CB, Montalban X & Hidalgo J (2001) Altered inflammatory response and increased neurodegeneration in metallothionein I+II deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 119, 248260.
  • 70
    Carrasco J, Penkowa M, Hadberg H, Molinero A & Hidalgo J (2000) Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci 12, 23112322.
  • 71
    Trendelenburg G, Prass K, Priller J, Kapinya K, Polley A, Muselmann C, Ruscher K, Kannbley U, Schmitt AO, Castell S et al. (2002) Serial analysis of gene expression identifies metallothionein-II as major neuroprotective gene in mouse focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci 22, 58795888.
  • 72
    Penkowa M, Camats J, Giralt M, Molinero A, Hernandez J, Carrasco J, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2003) Metallothionein-I overexpression alters brain inflammation and stimulates brain repair in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted interleukin-6 expression. Glia 42, 287306.
  • 73
    Molinero A, Penkowa M, Hernandez J, Camats J, Giralt M, Lago N, Carrasco J, Campbell IL & Hidalgo J (2003) Metallothionein-I overexpression decreases brain pathology in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-6. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62, 315328.
  • 74
    Quintana A, Giralt M, Rojas S, Penkowa M, Campbell IL, Hidalgo J & Molinero A (2005) Differential role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in mouse brain inflammatory responses in cryolesion brain injury. J Neurosci Res 82, 701716.
  • 75
    Penkowa M, Tio L, Mecedes G, Quintana A, Molinero A, Atrian S, Vasak M & Hidalgo J (2006) Specificity and divergence in the neurobiological effects of different Metallothioneins after brain injury. J Neurosci Res, doi: 10.1002/jnr.20790.
  • 76
    Espejo C & Martinez-Caceres EM (2005) The role of methallothioneins in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 1051, 8896.
  • 77
    Beattie JH, Wood AM, Newman AM, Bremner I, Choo KH, Michalska AE, Duncan JS & Trayhurn P (1998) Obesity and hyperleptinemia in metallothionein (-I and -II) null mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 358363.
  • 78
    Ye B, Maret W & Vallee BL (2001) Zinc metallothionein imported into liver mitochondria modulates respiration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 23172322.
  • 79
    Allan SM & Rothwell NJ (2003) Inflammation in central nervous system injury. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358, 16691677.
  • 80
    Mhatre M, Floyd RA & Hensley K (2004) Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: common links and potential therapeutic targets. J Alzheimers Dis 6, 147157.
  • 81
    Safieh-Garabedian B, Haddad JJ & Saade NE (2004) Cytokines in the central nervous system: targets for therapeutic intervention. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3, 271280.
  • 82
    Safieh-Garabedian B, Mouneimne GM, El Jouni W, Khattar M & Talhouk R (2004) The effect of endotoxin on functional parameters of mammary CID-9 cells. Reproduction 127, 397406.
  • 83
    Villoslada P & Genain CP (2004) Role of nerve growth factor and other trophic factors in brain inflammation. Prog Brain Res 146, 403414.
  • 84
    Campbell IL (2001) Cytokine-mediated inflammation and signaling in the intact central nervous system. Prog Brain Res 132, 481498.
  • 85
    Wang J, Asensio VC & Campbell IL (2002) Cytokines and chemokines as mediators of protection and injury in the central nervous system assessed in transgenic mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 265, 2348.
  • 86
    Ishihara K & Hirano T (2002) IL-6 in autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory proliferative disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 13, 357368.
  • 87
    Yin X, Knecht DA & Lynes MA (2005) Metallothionein mediates leukocyte chemotaxis. BMC Immunol 6, 21.
  • 88
    Koropatnick J & Zalups RK (1997) Effect of non-toxic mercury, zinc or cadmium pretreatment on the capacity of human monocytes to undergo lipopolysaccharide-induced activation. Br J Pharmacol 120, 797806.
  • 89
    Leibbrandt ME & Koropatnick J (1994) Activation of human monocytes with lipopolysaccharide induces metallothionein expression and is diminished by zinc. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 124, 7281.
  • 90
    Leibbrandt ME, Khokha R & Koropatnick J (1994) Antisense down-regulation of metallothionein in a human monocytic cell line alters adherence, invasion, and the respiratory burst. Cell Growth Differ 5, 1725.
  • 91
    Canpolat E & Lynes MA (2001) In vivo manipulation of endogenous metallothionein with a monoclonal antibody enhances a T-dependent humoral immune response. Toxicol Sci 62, 6170.
  • 92
    Lynes MA, Borghesi LA, Youn J & Olson EA (1993) Immunomodulatory activities of extracellular metallothionein I: metallothionein effects on antibody production. Toxicology 85, 161177.
  • 93
    Youn J & Lynes MA (1999) Metallothionein-induced suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function: an important immunoregulatory control. Toxicol Sci 52, 199208.
  • 94
    Youn J, Borghesi LA, Olson EA & Lynes MA (1995) Immunomodulatory activities of extracellular metallothionein II: effects on macrophage functions. J Toxicol Environ Health 45, 397413.
  • 95
    Crowthers KC, Kline V, Giardina C & Lynes MA (2000) Augmented humoral immune function in metallothionein-null mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 166, 161172.
  • 96
    Jin GB, Nakayama H, Shmyhlo M, Inoue S, Kondo M, Ikezawa Z, Ouchi Y & Cyong JC (2003) High positive frequency of antibodies to metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 in sera of patients with metal allergy. Clin Exp Immunol 131, 275279.
  • 97
    Miesel R & Zuber M (1993) Copper-dependent antioxidase defenses in inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Inflammation 17, 283294.
  • 98
    Knutsson U, Stierna P, Marcus C, Carlstedt-Duke J, Carlstrom K & Bronnegard M (1995) Effects of intranasal glucocorticoids on endogenous glucocorticoid peripheral and central function. J Endocrinol 144, 301310.
  • 99
    Bronnegard M, Werner S & Gustafsson JA (1991) Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with familial glucocorticoid resistance. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 39, 693701.
  • 100
    Hidalgo J, Belloso E, Hernandez J, Gasull T & Molinero A (1997) Role of glucocorticoids on rat brain metallothionein-I and -III response to stress. Stress 1, 231240.
  • 101
    Scheede-Bergdahl C, Penkowa M, Hidalgo J, Olsen DB, Schjerling P, Prats C, Boushel R & Dela F (2005) Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 54, 30893094.
  • 102
    Ayaz M, Celik HA, Aydin HH & Turan B (2005) Sodium selenite protects against diabetes-induced alterations in the antioxidant defense system of the liver. Diabetes Metab Res Rev[Epub ahead of print].
  • 103
    Avolio C, Giuliani F, Liuzzi GM, Ruggieri M, Paolicelli D, Riccio P, Livrea P & Trojano M (2003) Adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases in multiple sclerosis: effects induced by interferon-beta. Brain Res Bull 61, 357364.
  • 104
    Gasche Y, Soccal PM, Kanemitsu M & Copin JC (2006) Matrix metalloproteinases and diseases of the central nervous system with a special emphasis on ischemic brain. Front Biosci 11, 12891301.
  • 105
    Sofroniew MV (2005) Reactive astrocytes in neural repair and protection. Neuroscientist 11, 400407.
  • 106
    Faulkner JR, Herrmann JE, Woo MJ, Tansey KE, Doan NB & Sofroniew MV (2004) Reactive astrocytes protect tissue and preserve function after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 24, 21432155.
  • 107
    Frederickson CJ, Maret W & Cuajungco MP (2004) Zinc and excitotoxic brain injury: a new model. Neuroscientist 10, 1825.
  • 108
    Maret W, Heffron G, Hill HA, Djuricic D, Jiang LJ & Vallee BL (2002) The ATP/metallothionein interaction: NMR and STM. Biochem 41, 16891694.
  • 109
    Feng W, Cai J, Pierce WM, Franklin RB, Maret W, Benz FW & Kang YJ (2005) Metallothionein transfers zinc to mitochondrial aconitase through a direct interaction in mouse hearts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332, 853858.