• 1
    Tsukita S & Furuse M (2002) Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets. Curr Opin Cell Biol 14, 531536.
  • 2
    Tsukita S, Furuse M & Itoh M (2001) Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2, 285293.
  • 3
    Schmitz H, Barmeyer C, Fromm M, Runkel N, Foss HD, Bentzel CJ, Riecken EO & Schulzke JD (1999) Altered tight junction structure contributes to the impaired epithelial barrier function in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 116, 301309.
  • 4
    Gitter AH, Wullstein F, Fromm M & Schulzke JD (2001) Epithelial barrier defects in ulcerative colitis: characterization and quantification by electrophysiological imaging. Gastroenterology 121, 13201328.
  • 5
    van Meer G & Simons K (1986) The function of tight junctions in maintaining differences in lipid composition between the apical and the basolateral cell surface domains of MDCK cells. EMBO J 5, 14551464.
  • 6
    Furuse M, Hirase T, Itoh M, Nagafuchi A, Yonemura S, Tsukita S & Tsukita S (1993) Occludin: a novel integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions. J Cell Biol 123, 17771788.
  • 7
    Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K & Tsukita S (1998) Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing at tight junctions with no sequence similarity to occludin. J Cell Biol 141, 15391550.
  • 8
    Martin-Padura I, Lostaglio S, Schneemann M, Williams L, Romano M, Fruscella P, Panzeri C, Stoppacciaro A, Ruco L, Villa A et al. (1998) Junctional adhesion molecule, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that distributes at intercellular junctions and modulates monocyte transmigration. J Cell Biol 142, 117127.
  • 9
    Sonoda N, Furuse M, Sasaki H, Yonemura S, Katahira J, Horiguchi Y & Tsukita S (1999) Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment removes specific claudins from tight junction strands: evidence for direct involvement of claudins in tight junction barrier. J Cell Biol 147, 195204.
  • 10
    Nusrat A, Parkos CA, Verkade P, Foley CS, Liang TW, Innis-Whitehouse W, Eastburn KK & Madara JL (2000) Tight junctions are membrane microdomains. J Cell Sci 113, 17711781.
  • 11
    Bruewer M, Luegering A, Kucharzik T, Parkos CA, Madara JL, Hopkins AM & Nusrat A (2003) Proinflammatory cytokines disrupt epithelial barrier function by apoptosis-independent mechanisms. J Immunol 171, 61646172.
  • 12
    GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivienze nell’Infarto miocardico) (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 354, 447455.
  • 13
    Freedman SD, Blanco PG, Zaman MM, Shea JC, Ollero M, Hopper IK, Weed DA, Gelrud A, Regan MM, Lapostata M et al. (2004) Association of cystic fibrosis with abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. N Engl J Med 350, 560569.
  • 14
    Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, Pera A, Boschi SB & Miglioli M (1996) Effect of an enteric coated fish oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 334, 15571560.
  • 15
    Teitelbaum JE & Walker WA (2001) The role of omega 3 fatty acids in intestinal inflammation. J Nutr Biochem 12, 2132.
  • 16
    Hawthorne AB, Daneshmend TK, Hawkey CJ, Belluzzi A, Everitt SJ, Holmes GK, Malkinson C, Shaheen MZ & Willars JE (1992) Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil supplementation: a prospective 12 month randomised controlled trial. Gut 33, 922928.
  • 17
    Aslan A & Triadafilopoulos G (1992) Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Am J Gastroenterol 87, 432437.
  • 18
    Kitsukawa Y, Saito K, Suzuki Y, Kasanuki J, Tamura Y & Yoshida S (1992) Effect of ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs. Gastroenterology 102, 18591866.
  • 19
    Kucharzik T, Walsh SV, Chen J, Parkos CA & Nusrat A (2001) Neutrophil transmigration in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with differential expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins. Am J Pathol 159, 20012009.
  • 20
    Nusrat A, Von Eichel-Streiber C, Turner JR, Verkade P, Madara JL & Parkos CA (2001) Clostridium difficile toxins disrupt epithelial barrier function by altering membrane microdomain localization of tight junction proteins. Infect Immun 69, 13291336.
  • 21
    Zeissig S, Bürgel N, Günzel D, Richter J, Mankertz J, Wahnschaffe U, Kroesen AJ, Zeitz M, Fromm M & Schulzke JD (2007) Changes in expression and distribution of claudin-2, -5 and -8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in active Crohn’s disease. Gut 56, 6172.
  • 22
    Li QR, Zhang Q, Wang M, Zhao SM, Ma J, Luo N, Li N, Li YS, Xu GW & Li JS (2007) Interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α disrupt epithelial barrier function by altering lipid composition in membrane microdomains of tight junction. Clin Immunol, doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2007.08.017.
  • 23
    Vilaseca J, Salas A, Guarner F, Rodriguez R, Martinez M & Malagelada JR (1990) Dietary fish oil reduces progression of chronic inflammatory lesions in a rat model of granulomatous colitis. Gut 31, 539544.
  • 24
    Pscheidl E (2002) Effects of fatty acids on gut integrity and function. Clin Nutr 21 (Suppl. 2), 4751.
  • 25
    Whiting CV, Bland PW & Tarlton JF (2005) Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce disease and colonic proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 340349.
  • 26
    Li QR, Zhang Q, Wang M, Zhao SM, Xu GW & Li JS (2007) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent disruption of epithelial barrier function induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Mol Immunol, doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2007.09.003.
  • 27
    Ma H, Wang JH, Wang J, Li YS & Li JS (2007) Fish oil ameliorates the allograft arteriosclerosis of intestine on rats. Pediatr Transplant 11, 173179.
  • 28
    Fiorucci S, Wallace JL, Mencarelli A, Distrutti E, Rizzo G, Farneti S, Morelli A, Tseng JL, Suramanyam B, Guilford WJ et al. (2004) A β-oxidation-resistant lipoxin A4 analog treats hapten-induced colitis by attenuating inflammation and immune dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 1573615741.
  • 29
    Resta-Lenert S, Smitham J & Barrett KE (2005) Epithelial dysfunction associated with the development of colitis in conventionally housed mdrla−/− mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289, G153G162.