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Keywords:

  • catalytic activity;
  • differential expression;
  • dimerization;
  • ligand binding;
  • oxidation;
  • phosphorylation;
  • (R)PTP;
  • (receptor) protein-tyrosine phosphate;
  • regulation;
  • subcellular localization

Protein-tyrosine phosphatases are tightly controlled by various mechanisms, ranging from differential expression in specific cell types to restricted subcellular localization, limited proteolysis, post-translational modifications affecting intrinsic catalytic activity, ligand binding and dimerization. Here, we review the regulatory mechanisms found to control the classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases.