Protein tyrosine phosphatases: functional inferences from mouse models and human diseases


W. J. A. J. Hendriks, 283 Cell Biology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Some 40-odd genes in mammals encode phosphotyrosine-specific, ‘classical’ protein tyrosine phosphatases. The generation of animal model systems and the study of various human disease states have begun to elucidate the important and diverse roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases in cellular signalling pathways, development and disease. Here, we provide an overview of those findings from mice and men, and indicate several novel approaches that are now being exploited to further our knowledge of this fascinating enzyme family.