Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins – structures, mechanisms and functions


L. B. Poole, Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
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Peroxiredoxins are abundant cellular antioxidant proteins that help to control intracellular peroxide levels. These proteins may also function, in part, through an evolved sensitivity of some peroxiredoxins towards peroxide-mediated inactivation in hydrogen peroxide signaling in eukaryotes. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of ‘typical 2-Cys’ peroxiredoxins and of the biological roles played by these important enzymes in oxidative stress and nonstress-related cellular signaling. New evidence suggests localized peroxide buildup plays a role in nonstress-related signaling.