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Keywords:

  • ASH1;
  • ASH2;
  • COMPASS;
  • histone H3 lysine 4;
  • histone methyltransferase;
  • MLL;
  • Set1;
  • TAC1;
  • TRX;
  • WDR5

The fourth lysine of histone H3 is post-translationally modified by a methyl group via the action of histone methyltransferase, and such a covalent modification is associated with transcriptionally active and/or repressed chromatin states. Thus, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation has a crucial role in maintaining normal cellular functions. In fact, misregulation of this covalent modification has been implicated in various types of cancer and other diseases. Therefore, a large number of studies over recent years have been directed towards histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and the enzymes involved in this covalent modification in eukaryotes ranging from yeast to human. These studies revealed a set of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases with important cellular functions in different eukaryotes, as discussed here.