For elucidating protein–protein interactions, many methodologies have been developed during the past two decades. For investigation of interactions inside cells under physiological conditions, yeast is an attractive organism with which to quickly screen for hopeful candidates using versatile genetic technologies, and various types of approaches are now available. Among them, a variety of unique systems using the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) signaling pathway in yeast have been established to investigate the interactions of proteins for biological study and pharmaceutical research. G-proteins involved in various cellular processes are mainly divided into two groups: small monomeric G-proteins, and heterotrimeric G-proteins. In this minireview, we summarize the basic principles and applications of yeast-based screening systems, using these two types of G-protein, which are typically used for elucidating biological protein interactions but are differentiated from traditional yeast two-hybrid systems.