The cardiac hormones atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide (brain natriuretic peptide) activate guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) and produce the second messenger cGMP. GC-A/NPRA is a member of the growing family of GC receptors. The recent biochemical, molecular and genomic studies on GC-A/NPRA have provided important insights into the regulation and functional activity of this receptor protein, with a particular emphasis on cardiac and renal protective roles in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states. The progress in this field of research has significantly strengthened and advanced our knowledge about the critical roles of Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) in the control of fluid volume, blood pressure, cardiac remodeling, and other physiological functions and pathological states. Overall, this review attempts to provide insights and to delineate the current concepts in the field of functional genomics and signaling of GC-A/NPRA in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states at the molecular level.