• 1
    Coon MJ (2005) Cytochrome P450: nature’s most versatile biological catalyst. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 45, 125.
  • 2
    Seliskar M & Rozman D (2007) Mammalian cytochromes P450 – importance of tissue specificity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1770, 458466.
  • 3
    Kemppainen RJ & Behrend EN (1997) Adrenal physiology. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 27, 173186.
  • 4
    Missaghian E, Kempna P, Dick B, Hirsch A, Alikhani-Koupaei R, Jegou B, Mullis PE, Frey BM & Fluck CE (2009) Role of DNA methylation in the tissue-specific expression of the CYP17A1 gene for steroidogenesis in rodents. J Endocrinol 202, 99109.
  • 5
    Oster H, Damerow S, Hut RA & Eichele G (2006) Transcriptional profiling in the adrenal gland reveals circadian regulation of hormone biosynthesis genes and nucleosome assembly genes. J Biol Rhythms 21, 350361.
  • 6
    Oster H, Damerow S, Kiessling S, Jakubcakova V, Abraham D, Tian J, Hoffmann MW & Eichele G (2006) The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids is regulated by a gating mechanism residing in the adrenal cortical clock. Cell Metab 4, 163173.
  • 7
    Reddy AB, Maywood ES, Karp NA, King VM, Inoue Y, Gonzalez FJ, Lilley KS, Kyriacou CP & Hastings MH (2007) Glucocorticoid signaling synchronizes the liver circadian transcriptome. Hepatology 45, 14781488.
  • 8
    Chung S, Son GH & Kim K (2011) Adrenal peripheral oscillator in generating the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1220, 7181.
  • 9
    Green CB, Takahashi JS & Bass J (2008) The meter of metabolism. Cell 134, 728742.
  • 10
    Turek FW, Joshu C, Kohsaka A, Lin E, Ivanova G, McDearmon E, Laposky A, Losee-Olson S, Easton A, Jensen DR et al. (2005) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian clock mutant mice. Science 308, 10431045.
  • 11
    Sewer MB & Waterman MR (2001) Insights into the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic enzymes and StAR. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2, 269274.
  • 12
    Foulkes NS, Whitmore D & Sassone-Corsi P (1997) Rhythmic transcription: the molecular basis of circadian melatonin synthesis. Biol Cell 89, 487494.
  • 13
    Acimovic J, Fink M, Pompon D, Bjorkhem I, Hirayama J, Sassone-Corsi P, Golicnik M & Rozman D (2008) CREM modulates the circadian expression of CYP51, HMGCR and cholesterogenesis in the liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 376, 206210.
  • 14
    Borjigin J, Wang MM & Snyder SH (1995) Diurnal variation in mRNA encoding serotonin N-acetyltransferase in pineal gland. Nature 378, 783785.
  • 15
    Lopez-Serra L, Ballestar E, Ropero S, Setien F, Billard LM, Fraga MF, Lopez-Nieva P, Alaminos M, Guerrero D, Dante R et al. (2008) Unmasking of epigenetically silenced candidate tumor suppressor genes by removal of methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins. Oncogene 27, 35563566.
  • 16
    Son GH, Chung S, Choe HK, Kim HD, Baik SM, Lee H, Lee HW, Choi S, Sun W, Kim H et al. (2008) Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105, 2097020975.
  • 17
    Carnes M, Kalin NH, Lent SJ, Barksdale CM & Brownfield MS (1988) Pulsatile ACTH secretion: variation with time of day and relationship to cortisol. Peptides 9, 325331.
  • 18
    Sewer MB, Dammer EB & Jagarlapudi S (2007) Transcriptional regulation of adrenocortical steroidogenic gene expression. Drug Metab Rev 39, 371388.
  • 19
    Ishida A, Mutoh T, Ueyama T, Bando H, Masubuchi S, Nakahara D, Tsujimoto G & Okamura H (2005) Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release. Cell Metab 2, 297307.
  • 20
    Le Goascogne C, Sananes N, Gouezou M, Takemori S, Kominami S, Baulieu EE & Robel P (1991) Immunoreactive cytochrome P-450(17 alpha) in rat and guinea-pig gonads, adrenal glands and brain. J Reprod Fertil 93, 609622.
  • 21
    Nason TF, Han XG & Hall PF (1992) Cyclic AMP regulates expression of the rat gene for steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase P-450 (CYP17) in rat Leydig cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1171, 7380.
  • 22
    Rodriguez H, Hum DW, Staels B & Miller WL (1997) Transcription of the human genes for cytochrome P450scc and P450c17 is regulated differently in human adrenal NCI-H295 cells than in mouse adrenal Y1 cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 365371.
  • 23
    Sewer MB, Li D, Dammer EB, Jagarlapudi S & Lucki N (2008) Multiple signaling pathways coordinate CYP17 gene expression in the human adrenal cortex. Acta Chim Slov 55, 5357.
  • 24
    de Groot RP & Sassone-Corsi P (1993) Hormonal control of gene expression: multiplicity and versatility of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-responsive nuclear regulators. Mol Endocrinol 7, 145153.
  • 25
    Blocher S, Behr R, Weinbauer GF, Bergmann M & Steger K (2003) Expression of CREM isoforms in human and equine testis with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Andrologia 35, 34.
  • 26
    Foulkes NS, Mellstrom B, Benusiglio E & Sassone-Corsi P (1992) Developmental switch of CREM function during spermatogenesis: from antagonist to activator. Nature 355, 8084.
  • 27
    Desdouets C, Matesic G, Molina CA, Foulkes NS, Sassone-Corsi P, Brechot C & Sobczak-Thepot J (1995) Cell cycle regulation of cyclin A gene expression by the cyclic AMP-responsive transcription factors CREB and CREM. Mol Cell Biol 15, 33013309.
  • 28
    Borlikova G & Endo S (2009) Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) and brain functions. Mol Neurobiol 40, 7386.
  • 29
    Molina CA, Foulkes NS, Lalli E & Sassone-Corsi P (1993) Inducibility and negative autoregulation of CREM: an alternative promoter directs the expression of ICER, an early response repressor. Cell 75, 875886.
  • 30
    Malisch JL, Breuner CW, Gomes FR, Chappell MA & Garland T Jr (2008) Circadian pattern of total and free corticosterone concentrations, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and physical activity in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior. Gen Comp Endocrinol 156, 210217.
  • 31
    Wang YH, Tee MK & Miller WL (2010) Human cytochrome p450c17: single step purification and phosphorylation of serine 258 by protein kinase a. Endocrinology 151, 16771684.
  • 32
    Kempna P, Hirsch A, Hofer G, Mullis PE & Fluck CE (2010) Impact of differential P450c17 phosphorylation by cAMP stimulation and by starvation conditions on enzyme activities and androgen production in NCI-H295R cells. Endocrinology 151, 36863696.
  • 33
    Dammer EB & Sewer MB (2008) Phosphorylation of CtBP1 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase modulates induction of CYP17 by stimulating partnering of CtBP1 and 2. J Biol Chem 283, 69256934.
  • 34
    Kosir R, Acimovic J, Golicnik M, Perse M, Majdic G, Fink M & Rozman D (2010) Determination of reference genes for circadian studies in different tissues and mouse strains. BMC Mol Biol 11, 60.
  • 35
    Fink M, Acimovic J, Rezen T, Tansek N & Rozman D (2005) Cholesterogenic lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) is an immediate early response gene. Endocrinology 146, 53215331.
  • 36
    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF & Maniatis TM (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • 37
    Cornelia P, Ferdinand H & Jerzy A (2010) Quantification of steroids in human and mouse plasma using online solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Nature Protocols, Protocol Exchange, doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.22, on-line 16. Feb 2010.