Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood is utilized in clinical HSPC transplantation protocols. Retention of HSPCs in the bone marrow is determined by relationships between the chemokine chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its major receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and disruption of this retention by CXCR4 antagonists such as AMD3100 induces rapid HSPC mobilization. Here, we report that aminoglycoside–polyarginine conjugates (APACs) and N-α-acetyl-nona-d-arginine (r9) induce mobilization of white blood cells and, preferentially, immature hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in mice, similarly to AMD3100. Remarkably, administration of AMD3100 with each one of the APACs or r9 caused additional HPC mobilization. The mobilizing activity of APACs and r9 was accompanied by a significant elevation in plasma CXCL12 levels. To further understand how APACs, r9 and their combinations with AMD3100 compete with CXCL12 binding to CXCR4, as well with antibody against CXCR4 for CXCR4 binding, we have undertaken an approach combining experimental validation and docking to determine plausible binding modes for these ligands. On the basis of our biological and docking findings, and recently published NMR data, we suggest that combination of pairs of compounds such as APACs (or r9) with AMD3100 induces more efficient disruption of the CXCL12–CXCR4 interaction than AMD3100 alone, resulting in enhanced HPC mobilization.