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Hip fracture and pressure ulcers – the Pan-European Pressure Ulcer Study – intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors*


  • *

    This study was approved by local Ethics committees where appropriate and performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration.

C Lindholm, Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, 29188 Kristianstad, Sweden


Pressure ulcers (PU) in patients with hip fracture remain a problem. Incidence of between 8·8% and 55% have been reported. There are few studies focusing on the specific patient-, surgery- and care-related risk indicators in this group. The aims of the study were

  • • to investigate prevalence and incidence of PU upon arrival and at discharge from hospital and to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for development of PU in patients admitted for hip fracture surgery.
  • • to illuminate potential differences in patient logistics, surgery, PU prevalence and incidence and care between Northern and Southern Europe. Consecutive patients with hip fracture in six countries, Sweden, Finland, UK (North) and Spain, Italy and Portugal (South), were included. The patients were followed from Accident and Emergency Department and until discharge or 7 days. Prevalence, PU at discharge and incidence were investigated, and intrinsic and extrinsic risk indicators, including waiting time for surgery and duration of surgery were recorded. Of the 635 patients, 10% had PU upon arrival and 22% at discharge (26% North and 16% South). The majority of ulcers were grade 1 and none was grade 4. Cervical fractures were more common in the North and trochanteric in the South. Waiting time for surgery and duration of surgery were significantly longer in the South. Traction was more common in the South and perioperative warming in the North. Risk factors of statistical significance correlated to PU at discharge were age ≥71 (P = 0·020), dehydration (P = 0·005), moist skin (P = 0·004) and total Braden score (P = 0·050) as well as subscores for friction (P = 0·020), nutrition (P = 0·020) and sensory perception (P = 0·040). Comorbid conditions of statistical significance for development of PU were diabetes (P = 0·005) and pulmonary disease (P = 0·006). Waiting time for surgery, duration of surgery, warming or non warming perioperatively, type of anaesthesia, traction and type of fracture were not significantly correlated with development of PU.
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