• bleeding;
  • blood loss;
  • epistaxis;
  • haemorrhage;
  • nose;
  • nosebleed


Epistaxis is a frequent complaint, and may often cause great anxiety in patients and clinicians. Epistaxis results from the interaction of factors that damage the nasal mucosal lining, affect the vessel walls, or alter the coagulability of the blood, and which may be categorized into environmental, local, systemic and medication related. The knowledge of the first aid treatment of epistaxis is very poor, amongst not only the public, but also health professionals. Immediate emergency department management of epistaxis depends on prioritized assessment and treatment, including resuscitation if necessary, together with the application of relatively simple otolaryngological techniques. There is little high quality evidence regarding routine, alternative or adjunctive treatments.