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References

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    Miner JR, Krauss B. Procedural sedation and analgesia research: state of the art. Acad. Emerg. Med. 2007; 14: 1708.
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    Green SM, Rothrock SG, Lynch EL et al. Intramuscular ketamine for paediatric sedation in the emergency department: safety profile with 1022 Cases. Ann. Emerg. Med. 1998; 31: 68897.
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    Roback MG, Wathen JE, Mackenzie T, Bajaj L. A randomised control trial of I.V. versus I.M. ketamine for sedation of paediatric patients receiving emergency department orthopedic procedures. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2006; 48: 60512.
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    Marshall WR, Weaver BD, McCutcheon P. A study of the effectiveness of oral midazolam as a dental pre-operative sedative and hypnotic. Spec. Care Dentist. 1999; 19: 25966.
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    Pena BM, Krauss B. Adverse events of procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 1999; 34: 48391.
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    Godwin SA, Caro DA, Wolf SJ et al. Clinical policy: procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2005; 45: 17796.
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    Krauss B, Green S. Training and credentialing in procedural sedation and analgesia in children: lessons from the United States model. Pediatr. Anesth. 2008; 18: 3035.
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    Roback MG, Bajaj L, Wathen JE, Bothner J. Preprocedural fasting and adverse events in procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department: are they related? Ann. Emerg. Med. 2004; 44: 4549.
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    Treston G. Prolonged pre-procedure fasting time is unnecessary when using titrated intravenous ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation. Emerg. Med. Australas. 2004; 16: 14550.
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    Babl FE, Puspitadewi A, Barnett P, Oakley E, Spicer M. Preprocedural fasting state and adverse events in children receiving nitrous oxide for procedural sedation and analgesia. Pediatr. Emerg. Care 2005; 21: 73643.
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    Green SM, Krauss B. Pulmonary aspiration risk during emergency department procedural sedation – an examination of the roles of fasting and sedation depth. Acad. Emerg. Med. 2002; 9: 3542.
  • 21
    Green SM. Fasting is a consideration – not a necessity – for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2003; 42: 64750.
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    Cook-Sather SD, Harris KA, Chiavacci R, Gallagher PR, Schreiner MS. A liberalized fasting guideline for formula-fed infants does not increase average gastric fluid volume before elective surgery. Anesth. Anal. 2003; 96: 965.
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    Green CR, Pandit SK, Schork MA. Preoperative fasting time: is the traditional policy changing? Results of a national survey. Anesth. Anal. 1996; 83: 1238.
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    Green SM, Roback MG, Miner JR, Burton JH, Krauss B. Fasting and emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia: a consensus-based clinical practice advisory. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2007; 49: 45461.
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    Yldzdaş D, Yapcoglu H, Ylmaz HL. The value of capnography during sedation or sedation/analgesia in pediatric minor procedures. Pediatr. Emerg. Care 2004; 20: 1625.
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    Krauss B, Hess D. Capnography for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2007; 50: 17281.
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    Johansen JW. Update on Bispectral Index monitoring. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Anaesthesiol. 2006; 20: 8199.
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    Gill M, Green SM, Krauss B. A Study of the bispectral index monitor during pracedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2003; 41: 23441.
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    Agrawal D, Feldman H, Krauss B, Waltzman M. Bispectral index monitoring quantifies depth of sedation during emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia in children. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2004; 43: 24755.
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    Vardy JM, Dignon N, Mukherjee N, Sami DM, Balachandran G, Taylor S. Audit of the safety and effectiveness of ketamine for procedural sedation in the emergency department. Emerg. Med. J. 2008; 25: 57982.