From 12 months of age, mice were treated with 10 mg/kg/day of e,e,e-C60(C(COOH)2)3 in the drinking water for the remaining part of their life. The C3 treatment increased the lifespan of the mice, reduced superoxide radical formation in the brain mitochondria, and increased learning and memory in Morris water maze tests. In addition, ageing-related immune system effects were attenuated. The treatment suggests beneficial effects and no adverse effect of a treatment lasting more than 1 year with a compound that was able to cross the blood-brain barrier .
Rats were exposed nose-only to C60 fullerene ‘nanoparticles’ (size: 55 nm) at 2.22 mg/m3 or to ‘microparticles’ (size: 0.93 µm) at 2.35 mg/m3 for 3 hr/day for 10 consecutive days. Rats exposed to either type of particles had nasal and eye discharge that had disappeared next morning. No other observational effect was apparent. No exposure-dependent effect was apparent from autopsy. In the exposed groups, the body weight gain and the organ weights (brain, epididymis, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, testes and the bronchiolar, mandibular and mediastinal lymph nodes) were similar to these in the control group. Microscopically, no exposure-dependent effect was apparent in the brain, eyes, liver, kidneys, epididymis, urinary bladder, lymph nodes (bronchial, mandibular, mediastinal and mesenteric), larynx and nose. The nanoparticle-exposed group had slightly decreased red blood cell counts, haemoglobin and packed cell volume. The differences were 3% or less compared to the controls. In the microparticle-exposed group, the white blood cell count was decreased by 21%, the monocytes by 73%, the eosinophils by 55% and the platelets by 13%. Serum chemistry comprised 12 parameters. Serum glucose was significantly increased (3.4%) in the nanoparticle group only. The microparticle group had significantly decreased serum albumin (2%) and significantly increased serum bile acids (55%) and serum creatine kinase (32%). The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed no effect on total cell counts, percentage of dead cells, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and lactate dehydrogenase in the two types of particle-exposed groups compared to the controls. However, the nanoparticle-exposed animals had higher (47%) protein in the BAL. The BAL fluid was studied for 14 cytokines. The nanogroup showed no significant difference from the controls. In the microparticle group, Gro/KC and IL-18 were significantly decreased whereas a significant increase was observed in tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. Overall, there were minimal changes in the studied toxicological end-points .
The C60((CH2)4SO3Na)4–6 fullerene derivative was studied in female rats. Thus, 0 (vehicle control), 0.6, 6 or 60 mg/kg/day was administered intraperitoneally for 12 consecutive days. A dose-dependent decrease was observed in absolute and relative thymus weight at 6 mg/kg/day. A decrease was also observed in plasma triacylglycerol. At 60 mg/kg/day, the body weight and the thymus weight decreased, whereas the relative liver, kidney, spleen and brain weight increased. The plasma aspartate aminotransferase increased and the triacylglycerol decreased. Histology showed phagolysosomal nephropathy both in the 6 and in the 60 mg/kg/day groups. The kidney NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase increased about seven times in all exposure groups