Abstract:  The risk of acute rejection in patients with higher exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), might be due to inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) polymorphisms. The correlations with subclinical acute rejection, IMPDH1 polymorphisms and MPA exposure on day 28 post-transplantation were investigated in 82 Japanese recipients. Renal transplant recipients were given combination immunosuppressive therapy consisting of tacrolimus and 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g/day of MMF in equally divided doses every 12 hr at designated times. There were no significant differences in the incidence of subclinical acute rejection between IMPDH1 rs2278293 or rs2278294 polymorphisms (= 0.243 and 0.735, respectively). However, in the high MPA night-time exposure range (AUC >60 μg·h/ml and C 1.9 μg/ml), there was a significant difference in the incidence of subclinical acute rejection between IMPDH1 rs2278293 A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes (each = 0.019), but not the IMPDH1 rs2278294 genotype. In the higher daytime MPA exposure range, patients with the IMPDH1 rs2278293 G/G genotype also tended to develop subclinical acute rejection. In patients with the IMPDH rs2278293 A/A genotype, the risk of subclinical acute rejection episode tends to be low and the administration of MMF was effective. The risk of subclinical acute rejection for recipients who cannot adapt in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA seems to be influenced by IMPDH1 rs2278293 polymorphism. The prospective analysis of IMPDH1 rs2278293 polymorphism as well as monitoring of MPA plasma concentration after transplantation might help to improve MMF therapy.