Guanylate Cyclase Activator YC-1 Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cells via Activation of Apoptosis-Related Proteins


Author for correspondence: Chung S. Lee, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, South Korea (fax +82 2 813 5387, e-mail


Abstract:  To assess the ability of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1) to promote apoptosis, we investigated the effect of YC-1 on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines. In OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cell lines, we examined the stimulatory effect of YC-1 on TRAIL-induced apoptosis by monitoring cell death, nuclear damage, changes in apoptosis-related protein levels, activation of caspases and changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. TRAIL induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein levels, increase in cleaved Bid and Bax levels, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (-8, -9 and -3) and an increase in the tumour suppressor p53 levels. YC-1 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis-related protein activation, nuclear damage and cell death. Results from this study suggest that YC-1 may enhance the apoptotic effect of TRAIL on ovarian carcinoma cell lines by increasing the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to caspase activation. YC-1 may confer a benefit in TRAIL treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma.