Raloxifene Reduces Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Animals after Ovarian Hormone Deprivation

Authors

  • Adriana Nunes Moraes,

    1. Department of Health Sciences, CEUNES, Federal University of Espirito Santo, São Mateus, ES, Brazil
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    • Adriana N. Moraes and Sonia A. Gouvêa contributed equally to this work.

  • Sonia Alves Gouvêa,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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    • Adriana N. Moraes and Sonia A. Gouvêa contributed equally to this work.

  • Washington Luiz Silva Gonçalves,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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  • Walckiria Garcia Romero,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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  • Margareth Ribeiro Moyses,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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  • Nazaré Souza Bissoli,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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  • José Guilherme Pinheiro Pires,

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
    2. UNIVIX Medical School, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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  • Gláucia Rodrigues Abreu

    1. Department of Physiological Sciences, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
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Author for correspondence: Sonia Alves Gouvêa, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde da UFES, Avenida Marechal Campos, 1456, 29040-577 Vitória, ES, Brazil (fax +55 27 3335 7330, e-mails sagouvea@ppgcf.ufes.br; gouveasa@yahoo.com.br).

Abstract

Abstract:  Raloxifene is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator that has been approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Studies have revealed several effects of raloxifene on the cardiovascular system, which might contribute to the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms, particularly in the systemic arterial hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of raloxifene on the blood pressure, renal excretion of water and Na+ and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels in 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) hypertensive female rats. The groups were as follows: hypertensive (2K1C), hypertensive ovariectomized (2K1C + OVX) and hypertensive ovariectomized treated with raloxifene (2K1C + OVX + R). Seven days after the surgery that produced menopause, 2K1C hypertension was produced in anaesthetized animals. Seven days after the clip application, the rats were put into metabolic cages to allow for the measurement of water ingestion and diuresis, and raloxifene was administered (2 mg/kg/day i.p., for 7 more days). We found a large reduction (< 0.01) in mean arterial pressure (197 ± 6 to 164 ± 2 mmHg), an increase in renal excretion of sodium and water (< 0.05) and an increase in plasma levels of nitrite/nitrate in 2K1C + OVX + R animals, when compared with the 2K1C (23.4 ± 1 versus 14 ± 0.5 nmol/mL; < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that raloxifene exerted its antihypertensive effect, at least in part, by improving the renal excretion of sodium and water.

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