Abstract:  Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and long-term complication of diabetes. In view of the pathological basis for the treatment of DN, it is important to prevent nerve degeneration. Most of the current treatment strategies are symptomatic therapies. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of magnesium-25, carrying porphyrin-fullerene nanoparticles, on diabetes-induced neuropathy. Previous studies have suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons comprise a specific target and may be responsible for the known complications of DN. Experimental DN was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg). Different forms of magnesium including 25Mg-PMC16, 24Mg-PMC16 and MgCl2 were administered intravenously in equal dose (0.5 LD50) at 48-hr intervals before STZ injection. Peripheral nerves were studied after 2 months of diabetes in groups using qualitative approaches, morphometric analysis of DRG neurons and motor function tests. We showed that STZ-induced DN caused morphological abnormalities in DRG neurons comprising changes in area, diameter and number of A and B cells as well as motor dysfunction in DN. Moreover, our findings indicated that administration of 25Mg-PMC16 as a magnetic form of Mg improved morphological abnormalities and motor dysfunctions significantly, whereas other forms of Mg were ineffective.