Smoking cessation and characteristics of success and failure among female high-school smokers


Gwang Suk Kim, Nursing Policy Research Institute, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Email:


Aim:  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program on female high-school students and to analyze the characteristics of students who quit smoking compared to those of students who failed to quit.

Methods:  This study used a mixed research design, including a pre- and post-experimental design for measuring the effects of the smoking cessation intervention and a qualitative design using a focus group interview to analyze the characteristics of individuals who successfully quit in comparison to those who failed to stop smoking. Data were collected before and after the intervention through a self-report questionnaire, a biochemical index, and a focus group interview.

Results:  After the intervention, positive changes in stage in the transtheoretical model for smoking-cessation behavior increased significantly (P < 0.001), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P = 0.001), dependency on nicotine, expiratory CO levels, and positive frequency of urine nicotine levels decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Based on data from the focus group interview, students who stopped smoking showed different intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics compared to students who failed to stop smoking.

Conclusion:  The results suggest that the smoking-cessation program could be more effective if it were to involve teachers and family members. In addition, a smoking-prohibited community environment could assist in the control of adolescents' smoking behavior.