• program evaluation;
  • reliability;
  • self-management;
  • translation and cultural adaptation;
  • validity


Aim:  In many countries, health education interventions are popular; however, few valid measures exist for evaluation of multifactorial interventions. The aim of the present study was to translate and culturally adapt the widely-used 8 scale Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) for the evaluation of the Japanese Specific Health Consultation (SHC) in people with metabolic syndrome.

Methods:  A draft was generated using a standardized forward and back translation protocol with independent translators and consensus meetings. Pilot testing included cognitive interviews (n = 12) resulting in question refinements. To explore psychometric properties, 250 participants aged between 40 and 64 years (retest = 116) completed the Japanese version of the heiQ (heiQ-J) and comparator scales, mental health and vitality scales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36 item Short-Form Health Survey, Sense Of Coherence scale, and Social Support Measurement scale.

Results:  Cognitive interviews revealed that the translation was understood as intended by participants. Internal consistency (α) was good to very good for all scales (0.70–0.88) and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients were high (≥0.83). Concurrent validity was supported by high correlation with like scales and weak correlation with dissimilar scales.

Conclusion:  The translated and adapted heiQ-J has good face and concurrent validity and is reliable. The heiQ-J is likely to be a useful measure of the quality and impact of the SHC and return valuable data to clinicians and commissioners of health education in Japan.