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12-month follow-up of first-episode psychosis in Finland and Spain—differential significance of social adjustment-related variables


  • Funding: None.

  • Conflict of interest: None.

Outi Kalla, Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, PO Box 35, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland. Email:


Objective:  This study explored 12-month outcome and its associations to social adjustment-related variables in patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis in Finland and Spain.

Methods:  Forty-nine Finnish and 37 Spanish patients were evaluated at admission on various characteristics of social adjustment. Outcome was measured for 68 (79%) patients by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Global Assessment Scale, and Grip on Life.

Results:  One-fourth of the patients experienced psychotic symptoms at follow-up. Sixty per cent of the patients showed good global functioning and Grip on Life. In both patient groups, poor earlier global functioning, weak social network, poor Grip on Life, and psychological dependence on family of origin were associated with poor outcome. In the Finnish group, few social contacts, lack of social recreational activities, and lack of stability in couple relations were related to poor outcome. In the Spanish group, low parental criticism was associated with poor outcome.

Conclusion:  Our findings support the notion that the level of earlier social adjustment is important in recovery from first-episode psychosis. However, different aspects of social adjustment, i.e., peer relations in the Finnish group and family relations in the Spanish group, appear to have prognostic importance in these two social environments.