• 1
    Hoyle Ch, Burnstock G. Neuronal populations in the submucous plexus of the human colon. J Anat 1989; 166: 722.
  • 2
    Domoto T, Bishop AE, Oki M, Polak JM. An in vitro study of the projections of enteric vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons in the human colon. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 81927.
  • 3
    Hens J, Vanderwinden JM, De Laet MH, Scheuermann DW, Timmermans JP. Morphological and neurochemical identification of enteric neurones with mucosal projections in the human small intestine. J Neurochem 2001; 76: 46471.
  • 4
    Wattchow DA, Brookes SJ, Costa M. The morphology and projections of retrogradely labeled myenteric neurons in the human intestine. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 86675.
  • 5
    Miller SM, Reed D, Sarr MG, Farrugia G, Szurszewski JH. Haem oxygenase in enteric nervous system of human stomach and jejunum and co-localization with nitric oxide synthase. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2001; 13: 12131.
  • 6
    Belai A, Burnstock G. Pattern of distribution and co-localization of NOS and ATP in the myenteric plexus of human fetal stomach and intestine. Neuroreport 2000; 11: 58.
  • 7
    Wattchow DA, Furness JB, Costa M. Distribution and coexistence of peptides in nerve fibers of the external muscle of the human gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 3241.
  • 8
    Wattchow DA, Porter AJ, Brookes SJ, Costa M. The polarity of neurochemically defined myenteric neurons in the human colon. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 497506.
  • 9
    Porter AJ, Wattchow DA, Brookes SJ, Costa M. The neurochemical coding and projections of circular muscle motor neurons in the human colon. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 191623.
  • 10
    Neunlist M, Aubert P, Toquet C et al. Changes in chemical coding of myenteric neurones in ulcerative colitis. Gut 2003; 52: 8490.
  • 11
    Balint A, Feher E, Kisfalvi I Jr et al. Functional and immunocytochemical evidence that galanin is a physiological regulator of human jejunal motility. J Physiol (Paris) 2001; 95: 12935.
  • 12
    Porter AJ, Wattchow DA, Brookes SJ, Costa M. Cholinergic and nitrergic interneurones in the myenteric plexus of the human colon. Gut 2002; 51: 705.
  • 13
    Anlauf M, Schafer MK, Eiden L, Weihe E. Chemical coding of the human gastrointestinal nervous system: cholinergic, VIPergic, and catecholaminergic phenotypes. J Comp Neurol 2003; 459: 90111.
  • 14
    Krantis A, Nichols K, Staines W. Neurochemical characterization and distribution of enteric GABAergic neurons and nerve fibres in the human colon. J Auton Nerv Syst 1998; 68: 3342.
  • 15
    Timmermans JP, Scheuermanns DW, Barbiers M et al. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in the human small intestine. Acta Anat 1992; 143: 4853.
  • 16
    Schneider J, Jehle EC Starlinger et al. Neurotransmitter coding of enteric neurones in the submucous plexus is changed in non-inflamed rectum of patients with Crohn's disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2001; 13: 25564.
  • 17
    Belai A, Boulos PB, Robson T, Burnstock G. Neurochemical coding in the small intestine of patients with Crohn's disease. Gut 1997; 40: 76774.
  • 18
    Cornet A, Savidge TC, Cabarrocas J et al. Enterocolitis induced by autoimmune targeting of enteric glial cells: a possible mechanism in Crohn's disease? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001; 98: 1330611.
  • 19
    Arnold SJ, Facer P, Yiangou Y et al. Decreased potassium channel IK1 and its regulator neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in inflamed human bowel. Neuroreport 2003; 14: 1915.
  • 20
    Roberts PJ, Morgan K, Miller R, Hunter JO, Middleton SJ. Neuronal COX-2 expression in human myenteric plexus in active inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2001; 48: 46872.
  • 21
    Yiangou Y, Facer P, Smith JA et al. Increased acid-sensing ion channel ASIC-3 in inflamed human intestine. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 8916.
  • 22
    Yiangou Y, Facer P, Baecker PA et al. ATP-gated ion channel P2X (3) is increased in human inflammatory bowel disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2001; 13: 3659.
  • 23
    Golder M, Burleigh DE, Belai A et al. Smooth muscle cholinergic denervation hypersensitivity in diverticular disease. Lancet 2003; 361: 194551.
  • 24
    Tornblom H, Lindberg G, Nyberg B, Veress B. Full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum reveals inflammation and enteric neuropathy in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 19729.
  • 25
    Porter AJ, Wattchow DA, Hunter A, Costa M. Abnormalities of nerve fibers in the circular muscle of patients with slow transit constipation. Int J Colorectal Dis 1998; 13: 20816.
  • 26
    Tomita R, Fujisaki S, Ikeda T, Fukuzawa M. Role of nitric oxide in the colon of patients with slow-transit constipation. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45: 593600.
  • 27
    Sjolund K, Fasth S, Ekman R et al. Neuropeptides in idiopathic chronic constipation (slow transit constipation). Neurogastroenterol Motil 1997; 9: 14350.
  • 28
    Wedel T, Spiegler J, Soellner S et al. Full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum reveals inflammation and enteric neuropathy in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 19729.
  • 29
    Wattchow DA, Costa M. Distribution of peptide-containing nerve fibres in achalasia of the oesophagus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 11: 47885.
  • 30
    Watanabe Y, Ando H, Seo T, Katsuno S, Marui Y, Ono Y, Torihashi S. Attenuated nitrergic inhibitory neurotransmission to interstitial cells of Cajal in the lower esophageal sphincter with esophageal achalasia in children. Pediatr Int 2002; 44: 1458.
  • 31
    Moses PL, Ellis LM, Anees MR et al. Antineuronal antibodies in idiopathic achalasia and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut 2003; 52: 62936.
  • 32
    Newgreen D, Young HM. Enteric nervous system: development and developmental disturbances − part 1. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2002; 5: 22447.
  • 33
    Abel RM, Bishop AE, Dore CJ, Spitz L, Polak JM. A quantitative study of the morphological and histochemical changes within the nerves and muscle in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. J Pediatr Surg 1998; 33: 6827.
  • 34
    He CL, Soffer EE, Ferris CD, Walsh RM, Szurszewski JH, Farrugia G. Loss of interstitial cells of cajal and inhibitory innervation in insulin-dependent diabetes. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 42734.
  • 35
    Anan I, El-Salhy M, Ando Y et al. Colonic enteric nervous system in patients with familial amyloidotic neuropathy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1999; 98: 4854.
  • 36
    Anan I, El-salhy M, Ando Y, Terazaki H, Suhr OB. Comparison of amyloid deposits and infiltration of enteric nervous system in the upper with those in the lower gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2001; 102: 22732.
  • 37
    Singaram C, Ashraf W, Gaumnitz EA et al. Dopaminergic defect of enteric nervous system in Parkinson's disease patients with chronic constipation. Lancet 1995; 346: 8614.
  • 38
    Ribeiro U Jr, Safatle-Ribeiro AV, Habr-Gama A, Gama-Rodrigues JJ, Sohn J, Reynolds JC. Effect of Chagas' disease on nitric oxide-containing neurons in severely affected and unaffected intestine. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41: 14117.
  • 39
    Schappi MG, Smith VV, Milla PJ, Lindley KJ. Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis is associated with functional intestinal obstruction. Gut 2003; 52: 7525.
  • 40
    Bosman C, Devito R, Fusilli S, Boldrini R. A new hypothesis on the pathogenesis of intestinal pseudo-obstruction by intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND). Pathol Res Pract 2001; 197: 78996.
  • 41
    Neunlist M, Barouk J, Just I, Leborgne J, Galmiche JP. Modification of the neuronal phenotype of human submucosal neurons by toxin B of Clostridium difficile: role of interleukin-1β and cyclooxygenase-2. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 320.
  • 42
    Coron E, Neunlist M, Sansonetti P, Galmiche JP. Shigella flexneri induced changes in the neurochemical phenotype of the human enteric nervous system involves a nitrergic pathway. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: A74.
  • 43
    Shmakov AN, McLennan NF, McBride P et al. Cellular prion protein is expressed in the human enteric nervous system. Nat Med 2000; 6: 8401.
  • 44
    Brookes SJ, Ewart WR, Wingate DL. Intracellular recordings from myenteric neurones in the human colon. J Physiol 1987; 390: 30518.
  • 45
    Schemann M, Michel K, Peters S, Bischoff SC, Neunlist M. Cutting-edge technology. III. Imaging and the gastrointestinal tract: mapping the human enteric nervous system. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 282: G91925.
  • 46
    Michel K, Bischoff S, Schemann M. Serotonin excites neurons in the human enteric nervous system. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2002; 14: 574 (Abstract).
  • 47
    Neunlist M, Barouk J, Michel K et al. Toxin B of Clostridium difficile activates human VIP submucosal neurons in part via an Il−1β-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol 2003; 285: G104955.
  • 48
    Bjornsson ES, Chey WD, Ladabaum U et al. Differential 5-HT3 mediation of human gastrocolonic response and colonic peristaltic reflex. Am J Physiol 1998; 275: G498505.
  • 49
    Grider JR. Identification of neurotransmitters regulating intestinal peristaltic reflex in humans. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 14149.
  • 50
    Foxx-Orenstein AE, Kuemmerle JF, Grider JR. Distinct 5-HT receptors mediate the peristaltic reflex induced by mucosal stimuli in human and guinea pig intestine. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 128190.
  • 51
    Grider JR, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Jin JG. 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists initiate the peristaltic reflex in human, rat, and guinea pig intestine. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 37080.
  • 52
    Bjornsson ES, Chey WD, Hooper F, Woods ML, Owyang C, Hasler WL. Impaired gastrocolonic response and peristaltic reflex in slow-transit constipation. role of 5-HT (3) pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 283: G4007.
  • 53
    Riegler M, Castagliuolo I, Wang C et al. Neurotensin stimulates Cl(-) secretion in human colonic mucosa In vitro: role of adenosine. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 34857.
  • 54
    Kellum JM, Albuquerque FC, Stoner MC, Harris RP. Stroking human jejunal mucosa induces 5-HT release and Cl-secretion via afferent neurons and 5-HT4 receptors. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: G51520.
  • 55
    King BN, Haque SM, Stoner MC, Ellis ZM, Kellum JM. Inhibition of neural nitric oxide synthase attenuates the chloride secretory response to stroking in human jejunum. Surgery 2003; 134: 2559.
  • 56
    Vanner S, Surprenant A. Neural reflexes controlling intestinal microcirculation. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: G22330.
  • 57
    Toumi F, Neunlist M, Cassagnau E et al. Human submucosal neurones regulate intestinal epithelial cell proliferation: evidence from a novel co-culture model. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2003; 15: 23942.
  • 58
    Neunlist M, Toumi F, Oreschkova T et al. The human enteric nervous system regulates the intestinal epithelial barrier permeability and a tight junction associated protein ZO-1 via a VIPergic pathway. Am J Physiol 2003; 285: G102836.