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Sustained Opioid Therapy Should Rarely Be Administered to Headache Patients: Clinical Observations, Literature Review, and Proposed Guidelines


  • Joel R. Saper M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.A.N.,

  • Alvin E. Lake III Ph.D.

Address correspondence to Joel R. Saper, M.D., Michigan Head Pain and Neurological Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, 734-677-6000