ORIGINAL RESEARCH—BASIC SCIENCE: Physiology of Female Sexual Function: Animal Models
Article first published online: 13 OCT 2004
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Volume 1, Issue 3, pages 237–253, November 2004
How to Cite
Giraldi, A., Marson, L., Nappi, R., Pfaus, J., Traish, A. M., Vardi, Y. and Goldstein, I. (2004), ORIGINAL RESEARCH—BASIC SCIENCE: Physiology of Female Sexual Function: Animal Models. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 1: 237–253. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.04037.x
- Issue published online: 13 OCT 2004
- Article first published online: 13 OCT 2004
- Physiology of Desire;
- Physiology of Arousal
Summary of Committee. This is a summary of the committee report. For the complete report please refer to Sexual Medicine: Sexual Dysfunctions in Men and Women, edited by T.F. Lue, R. Basson, R. Rosen, F. Giuliano, S. Khoury, F. Montorsi, Health Publications, Paris 2004.
Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of desire, arousal, and orgasm in women are limited because of ethical constraints.
Aim. To gain knowledge of physiology of female sexual function through animal models.
Methods. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning female sexual function in animal models, representing the opinions of seven experts from five countries developed in a consensus process over a 2-year period.
Main Outcome Measure. Expert opinion was based on the grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate.
Results. Sexual desire may be considered as the presence of desire for, and fantasy about, sexual activity. Desire in animals can be inferred from certain appetitive behaviors that occur during copulation and from certain unconditioned copulatory measures. Proceptive behaviors are dependent in part on estrogen, progesterone, and drugs that bind to D1 dopamine receptors, adrenergic receptors, oxytocin receptors, opioid receptors, or gamma-amino butyric acid receptors. Peripheral arousal states are dependent on regulation of genital smooth muscle tone. Multiple neurotransmitters/mediators are involved including adrenergic, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic agents such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P. Sex steroid hormones, estrogens and androgens, are critical for structure and function of genital tissues including modulation of genital blood flow, lubrication, neurotransmitter function, smooth muscle contractility, mucification, and sex steroid receptor expression in genital tissues. Orgasm may be investigated by urethrogenital (UG) reflex, in which genital stimulation results in rhythmic contractions of striated perineal muscles and contractions of vagina, anus, and uterine smooth muscle. The UG reflex is generated by a multisegmental spinal pattern generator involving the coordination of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferents innervating the genital organs. Serotonin and dopamine may modulate UG reflex activity.
Conclusions. More research is needed in animal models in the physiology of female sexual function.