ORIGINAL RESEARCH—ENDOCRINOLOGY: NCEP-ATPIII-Defined Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Prevalence of Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Sexual Dysfunction


Mario Maggi, MD, Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy. Tel: +39-55-4271415; Fax: +39-55-4271413; E-mail: m.maggi@dfc.unifi.it


Introduction.  Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are characterized by insulin resistance and often associated with male hypogonadism.

Aim.  To discriminate the specific contribution of T2DM and MetS to male hypogonadism.

Methods.  A consecutive series of 1,134 (mean age 52.1 ± 13 years) male patients with sexual dysfunction was studied.

Main Outcome Measures.  Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were studied along with ANDROTEST, a 12-item validated structured interview, specifically designed for the screening of hypogonadism (total testosterone [TT] <10.4 nmol/L or free testosterone [FT] <37 pmol/L) in a male population with sexual dysfunction.

Results.  Irrespective of the criteria used to define hypogonadism, MetS was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of the condition, both in subjects with and without T2DM (41% and 29% vs. 13.2% and 77.1% and 58% vs. 40.6%, respectively, for TT and FT in patients with MetS and with or without T2DM, when compared with subjects without MetS and T2DM; both P < 0.0001). Conversely, T2DM was associated with a higher prevalence of hypogonadism in subjects with MetS but not in those without MetS. Patients with MetS, with or without T2DM, also showed a higher ANDROTEST score when compared with patients without MetS. Logistic multivariate regression analysis, incorporating the five components of MetS, identified a significant association of elevated waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia with hypogonadism both in patients, with or without T2DM.

Conclusions.  Our study demonstrated that MetS, and in particular visceral adiposity (as assessed by increased waistline and hypertriglyceridemia), is specifically associated with hypogonadism in subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction. Corona G, Mannucci E, Petrone L, Balercia G, Paggi F, Fisher AD, Lotti F, Chiarini V, Fedele D, Forti G, and Maggi M. GNCEP-ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and prevalence of hypogonadism in male patients with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med 2007;4:1038–1045.