ORIGINAL RESEARCH–INTERSEX AND GENDER IDENTITY DISORDERS: Metoidioplasty as a Single Stage Sex Reassignment Surgery in Female Transsexuals: Belgrade Experience


Miroslav L. Djordjevic, MD, PhD, Department of Urology, Tirsova 10, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia. Tel: +381-63-380-282; Fax: +381 11 301 7295; E-mail: djordjevic@uromiros.com


Introduction.  Metoidioplasty represents one of the variants of phalloplasty in female transsexuals. Its main characteristic is that it is a one-stage procedure. It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with insertion of testicle prostheses.

Aim.  Our aim is to describe our technique and highlight its advantages.

Methods.  Between September 2002 and April 2007, 82 female transsexuals, aged 18–54 years (mean age 31) underwent one-stage metoidioplasty. Clitoris is lengthened and straightened by division of clitoral ligaments and short urethral plate. Urethroplasty is done with combined buccal mucosa graft and genital skin flaps. Scrotum is created from labia majora in which two testicle prostheses are inserted. Simultaneously, female genitalia are removed.

Main Outcome Measures.  Patients' personal satisfaction about sensitivity and length of neophallus, possibility to void in standing position, real length of reconstructed urethra as well as complication rate comparing to other published data.

Results.  The median follow-up was 32 months (range 14–69). The mean neophallic length was 5.7 cm (range 4–10). Voiding in standing position was reported in all patients, while dribbling and spraying were noticed in 23 cases and solved spontaneously. There were two urethral strictures and seven fistulas that required secondary minor revision. All patients reported preserved sensation and normal postoperative erection. Testicle prostheses rejection was not observed in any of the patients.

Conclusions.  Metoidioplasty is a single-stage and time-saving procedure. It could be an alternative to total phalloplasty in female transsexuals who do not wish to have sexual intercourse. Also, it represents a first step in cases where additional augmentation phalloplasty is required. Djordjevic ML, Stanojevic D, Bizic M, Kojovic V, Majstorovic M, Vujovic S, Milosevic A, Korac G, and Perovic SV. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience. J Sex Med 2009;6:1306–1313.