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Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels Are Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Essential Hypertensive Patients


Stella-Maria Kyvelou, MD, PhD, MSc, Hippokration Hospital, Athens Medical School, V. Sofias 108 Avenue, Athens 11526, Greece. Tel: +302107701950; Fax: +302107701950; E-mail:


Introduction.  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been recently related to cardiovascular system in a multifactorial way. Arterial stiffness is a independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSA values, are associated with arterial stiffness indices in patients with essential arterial hypertension.

Methods.  The study comprised 150 consecutive male patients (mean age 60 years) with uncomplicated never-treated essential hypertension. All patients underwent a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation, including measurement of PSA levels. Aortic stiffness and arterial wave reflection assessment was made by using carotid-femoral (PWVc-f) pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate (AIx75). Patients with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia (PSA > 4 ng/mL) were excluded from the study.

Results.  PSA was positively associated with waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.235, P = 0.04), PWVc-f (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), AIx75 (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; r = 0.376, P < 0.001). In categorization to PSA quartiles, patients in the higher quartile presented with higher waist-to hip ratio (P = 0.009), PWVc-f (P < 0.00001), AIx75 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.001) values. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for various confounders PSA remained a significant determinant of PWVc-f values (beta [SE] = 0.477 [0.13], R2 = 0.405, P < 0.001).

Conclusion.  The present study points towards an association between PSA levels and aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertensive males. Potential causal relationships between PSA and arterial stiffness remain to be further explored. Vyssoulis G, Karpanou E, Kyvelou S-M, Vlachopoulos C, Tzamou V, and Stefanadis C. Prostate-specific antigen levels are associated with arterial stiffness in essential hypertensive patients. J Sex Med 2012;9:3205–3210.