In a review of the literature on child gender and gender-specific effects for children of incarcerated parents, the present paper examines what we do and do not know about gender-specific protective and risk factors for children of incarcerated parents. The nuanced effects of parental separation based on child gender are offered, drawn from secondary level girls in an all-female support group operated at a secondary school in Little Rock, Arkansas for the past six years. Other programs are examined that evidence gender-specific effects for boys and girls in those programs. A few basic statistical indices suggest that the gender of an adolescent separated from his or her incarcerated parents has differential impacts to be better studied and possibly considered in service programming. The results may enhance the outcomes for the girls, and perhaps the boys.